This study aimed at investigating the effect of using the process writing approach on the writing achievement of tenth-grade EFL students in Jordan. One basic stage school was randomly selected, where one tenth- grade section was taught to write using the process approach, while the other section was taught using the traditional approach.
Means and standard deviations were used to compare the writing scores of the experimental and the control groups. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to know if those differences were due to the teaching method used.
Results showed that students who were taught using the process writing approach scored significantly higher than those who were taught using the traditional approach with regard to their total writing achievement and with regard to three other writing components (i.e.: message, length, and syntax), whereas no statistically significant differences were found with regard to writing mechanics and organization. It was recommended that EFL teachers as well as curricula planners reconsider the methods of teaching writing, so that more emphasis is given to the writing workshop.
This study aims at examining the effect of a proposed program of aerobic exercise in the aquatic and earthly milieus on (FBS, CHOL, TRIGL, RBC, HB, LDL, HDL). Methods: 27 volunteers were picked as a sample from the international fitness club, 14 for the earthly group and 13 for the aquatic. There were not any statistical differences between the two groups according to age, height, weight, body mass index and participation period variables. The two groups exercised for eight weeks by three training units weekly, while units’ strength ranged of 70-80% from heartbeats. The training course consists of four parts: warm – up exercise for 10 minutes, then stretching for 10 minutes, then aerobic for 30 minutes, finally cool – down exercise for 10 minutes. Three blood samples were taken from every volunteer from 8: 00-9:00 morning after 12-14 fasting hours. Statistical Analysis: Mean, standard deviation and (t) Test for paired samples were used to compare values between the start week and the last week, (t) Test for independent samples was used to compare values between the two groups at the starting point, fourth week and last one. Results: There are statistical differences between pre and post tests in variables of (HDL, FBS) = 0.05, (CHOL, TRIGL, LDL) = 0.01, the first assumption does not work for these variables while it was accepted for RBC, HB. There were statistical differences between pre and post tests for aerobic group in FBS, CHOL, TRIGL, LDL, and HDL variables (= 0.01) and HB (= 0.05). Regarding the five assumptions, it they were rejected for the whole study variables, as there were differences for the aerobic group in all variables, except CHOL.
Conclusion: The researchers recommended using aerobic exercise as an effective way on all body components (FBS, CHOL, TRIGL, HDL, LDL, HB, RBC).
The aim of this study was to determine the time at which gender differences in depressive and anxiety symptoms emerge. The sample included 12,246 boys and 11,987 girls (age 12-18), with a mean age of 15,5 for boys and 15,57 for girls. Significant gender differences in depressive and anxiety symptoms emerged at the age of 13 and 14, respectively and persisted through the age of 18.
The study findings suggest a need for longitudinal studies to replicate the present findings. Research is also needed to examine the possible role of psychosocial factors in the emergence of gender differences in depressive and anxiety symptoms in Arab adolescents.
The aim of the study is to construct a tailored test in mathematics for grade (8) students using the pyramidal strategy according to Rasch model in the Latent Trait Theory.
Two tests were constructed, one for each semester. These tests measure the first five levels of Bloom Taxonomy at the cognitive domain and with four choices for each. These tests were administered to a sample of (376) examinees in a two-stage cluster-random method.
The data obtained was analyzed using the Rascal program, then horizontal equating was applied to achieve a common unitary scale, and this contains (62) items. Only (55) items were chosen to construct the pyramidal tailored test which consists of ten levels, ordered pyramidally according to difficulty with the number of items equal to the level number.
The present study aimed at exploring motives among high school adolescent students for telling lies and the effect of gender and other demographic variables on the use of such motives. The sample consisted of 423 students, aged 16-18 years, who filled a questionnaire designed to measure students’ deceptive motives. Results revealed that the most used deceptive motives were: the emotional motives followed by self-protection, social, personal, and aggression motives, respectively. The results showed an effect for place of residence on emotional, personal, and aggression domains of deceptive motives. The results also showed an effect of father’s education on self-protection and social domains of deceptive motives.
Authors: Z. A. Al-Bashaireh , S. M. Al-Rawadhieh , A-H S. Al-Sultani
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 78 - 93
This study aimed to investigate the degree of familiarity of Mutah University faculty members with the university teaching methods and the degree of using these methods. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the ways of developing these methods. A sample of (114) faculty members was chosen. The subjects were selected in accordance with the classified random sampling procedure. The researchers designed a special instrument for collecting data. Descriptive statistics and One Way ANOVA were employed to answer the questions of the study.
The following conclusions were reached: (1) The majority of Mutah University faculty members are familiar only with the traditional teaching methods such as lecture, discussion, and problem solving methods. (2) The majority of Mutah University faculty members are mostly using the traditional teaching methods particularly lecture and discussion methods. (3) There were no significant differences in faculty members’ responses concerning using teaching methods due to the college factor. (4) There was a strong and positive relation (at α = 0.01) between the degree of familiarity and the degree of use of the teaching methods.
According to these results, some recommendations and suggestions were made.
The main focus of the study was to determine the effects of self and peer-assessment on improving student teachers’ learning to teach social studies during an elementary social studies preparation programme. The sample of the study consisted of 44 social studies student teachers of the full-time 4-year course of School of Education at Yarmouk University in Jordan of the academic year (2002/2003). To collect the data, semi-structured interviews were used. The study used keyword analysis to extract sequences of words about the use of self and peer-assessment as a learning tool. According to the analysis, the influence of self and peer assessment on student teachers learning to teach social studies has been classified into six main dimensions (categories). The study concluded that the application and regular use of self and peer-assessment will extremely cause profound and philosophical changes. It will enhance our understanding of the assessment process and of the learning process itself. Student teachers will definitely see the assessment process as a source of understanding help, and facilitating learning rather than an opportunity to answer questions. Also, the study offered a mechanism through which the students could acquire and utilize self and peer assessment skills to be able to reflect more on their learning.
The Knowledge Economy, Higher Education, Arab World, Life Long Learning
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 101 - 107
The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between the knowledge economy and higher education in the Arab world through answering the following questions:
1- What is the effect of the knowledge economy on higher education?
2- Can higher education in the Arab world cope with the knowledge economy?
The results of the study showed that the effect of the knowledge economy on higher education is mainly manifested in:
A. Establishing partnerships between universities and businesses.
B. Making universities centers of research and knowledge production.
C. Making universities provide students with the skills necessary for the knowledge economy.
D. Universities’ adoption of life-long learning.
On the other hand, the results of the study revealed that Arab universities are currently unable to cope efficiently with the challenges and requirements of the knowledge economy because, generally speaking, they depend on consuming old and imported knowledge instead of generating new genuine knowledge, forge weak links with workplaces, give low priority to scientific research, lag behind in information technology, employ old and traditional teaching methods, lack autonomy and do not offer enough access.
This study proposes a new formula for correcting for guessing in multiple-choice items, the Distraction-Scoring Formula (DSF). DSF takes into account the option distracting level in calculating an examinee’s final test score. It assumes that guessing is not always random and that the most distracting option for examinees in multiple-choice tests is the most nearly correct one. The effectiveness of DSF was compared with the common correcting for guessing formula, Scoring Formula (SF) using data from two standardized tests that were used at the United Arab Emirates University (UAEU). Results supported the use of DSF to award students for their selection of options based on the level of correctness when not sure about the correct answer. Also, the use of DSF increased test reliability for subsamples drawn from the total test sample.
The purpose of this study was to review the literature in the field of child development in order to illustrate the following dimensions: The biological, cognitive, physical, and motor development were reviewed with health education and the role of guardians, teachers and parents to enhance educational programs. It was suggested that national standards of fine and gross motor skills with growth and health related physical fitness are crucial to guide and gear supervisors, parents and teachers in steering the education for children in kindergartens.
Authors: Suha A. Essa , Mustafa "M.A." N. Al-Zagloul
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 129 - 144
The study aimed at identifying the relationship, as well as the differences between the extrinsic motivations and the aggressive behavior of the players of the national teams of self-defense games.
The study variables: sex, age group, and game type, were applied to a sample consisting of all the 116 players of the national teams.
Results of the study revealed significant differences related to sex in favour of male players, significant differences to game type in favour of Taekwando players and no significant differences related to players’ age groups.
In terms of aggressive behavior, results showed a moderate average for all dimensions and significant differences in suspicion and negativism in favour of male players and in favour of adult players for indirect hostility, negativism and suspicion.
Furthermore, results revealed that there was no correlation between extrinsic motivations and aggressive behavior.
In light of the results of this study, specific recommendations were set forth.
The aims of this study were: to identify adjustment problems facing Saudi Arabian students enrolled at Jordanian universities during the academic year 2002-2003, and to look at the differences in the adjustment problems in the following areas (academic, economic, emotional, social, and health) according to the following variables: gender, social environment, type of university, level of study, stage of study, source of sponsorship.
In order to achieve the goals of the study, the researcher has developed an instrument to measure the adjustment problems with appropriate factorial validity and internal consistency reliability.
The sample was randomly selected, and consisted of 130 male and female students spread between two variables (gender, university). After statistical analysis and discussion, some recommendations were presented.
This study aimed at developing a scale for scientific thinking skills. Forty five items were written. For the purpose of modifying the language of the items, the scale was administered to a pilot sample which consisted of (110) university students. The modified scale was administered to the main study sample, which consisted of (290) male and female university students in order to validate the scale. The final scale consisted of (32) valid items of three alternative in the form of multiple choice covering the following basic scientific thinking skills:
Stating problems, formulating hypothesis, testing hypotheses, interpreting, and generalizing.
The corrected item total correlation coefficients varied between (0.73) and (0.32), while the internal consistency coefficients for the subscales varied between (0.89) and (0.83).
The study results revealed statistical significance (p<0.001) between the performance of the study subjects according to their educational level and specialization, which indicates that the scale is able to discriminate between the levels of the subjects', scientific thinking.
Also, the study revealed that the correlation between the items of any subscale is stronger than that of the coefficients between any two subscales.
In light of the study results, we could say that the scale has psychometric characteristic, which are sufficient to be used for assessing scientific thinking skills for university students.
This study aims at knowing the motives behind attending graduate studies in public Jordanian universities in 2002-2003. The researcher developed a questionnaire of two parts:
One for personal information consisted of the independent variables, like gender, age, academic level, and university. The second part consisted of 25 items grouped in five dimensions, with five pargraphs for each dimension.
The sample of the study consisted of 500 randomly stratified selected students from Jordan, Yarmouk, and Mu’tah universities. The results showed no significant differences at (=0.05) level between means in the psychological, cultural, scientific, economic, and social dimensions, attributed to sex, age or academic level.
The results showed that the motives behind attending graduate education in public Jordanian universities were in descending order:
1. Psychological motives.
2. Cultural motives.
3. Scientific motives.
4. Economic motives, and
5. Social motives.
This study has recommended undertaking further studies about different aspects of motives behind attending graduate education in private and public universities, and further comparative studies about motives behind attending university education in its various academic levels.
The study has also recommended undertaking studies about the matching between graduate studies outputs and the needs and requirements of the national economy.