In the quest for feasible solutions for the falling standard of the English majors at An-Najah National University, insufficient attention has been given to improving student motivation. Some measures have been taken to curb and reverse the tendency, such as introducing more courses and more exams. Such measures and assumptions ignore the basic psychological principles that assert that increasing the level of difficulty for students produces a corresponding degree of anxiety and despondency to the detriment of the learning process. Based on relevant studies and the responses to a learner-oriented questionnaire, this paper will explore strategies by which we can motivate students and instill in them a greater sense of autonomy and control over their own language learning abilities. The questionnaire was developed by the researcher, approved by three experts in the faculty of education at An-Najah University and administered among the third and fourth year English major students at the English department at An-Najah University. Data was collected and analyzed. The results revealed that the English Department at An-Najah University didn’t take into consideration the basic principle of motivation. As a solution to this problem the researcher suggests a number of things among which introducing variety of extracurricular activities which according to the students will help enhance their motivation and thus upgrade their standard in English.
Authors: Samer Khasawneh , Ahmad Qablan , Abdulla Abu-Tineh , Mohammed Olimat
Vocational Education; Educational Reforms; State of California Curriculum Standards; Curriculum Models, Jordan.
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 12 - 24
The main purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of vocational teachers concerning the extent of application of curriculum standards for selected vocational programs in Jordan. The survey instrument developed for this study was based on the state of California (1993) vocational curriculum standards, which included seven dimensions represented by 37 items. The study surveyed 141 vocational teachers employed by vocational schools in the second educational district of Amman. Descriptive analyses were used to analyze the data collected.
Results of the study indicated overall moderate agreement toward the application of curriculum standards in the chosen three vocational programs. More specific, the standard "program development and evaluation" received the lowest degree of application whereas the standard "attention to the program" received the highest degree of application. Data have been discussed in light of demographic variables of vocational teachers. The study ended by offering a number of practical and theoretical implications for the field of vocational education.
This study aimed at investigating the effect of mental training on learning and improving performance of floor skills in Gymnastics. 24 students were chosen from the Private School in the University of Mu'ta. They were divided into two groups using the experimental approach. Each group consisted of 12 students: The control group; was trained by traditional routine, and the experimental group; was trained by using both mental and skills training program.
The study showed that the experimental group has achieved noticeable development in learning and acquiring the basic skills and excelled the controlling group in all skill expect standing on shoulders skills.
The researchers came up with the following recommendments: the necessity of using mental training program and investing it in instructional programs where these programs contributed facilitating and acquiring and mastering basic skill gymnastic Particularly the fresh trainers and we experts and the necessity of adopting mental training program besides skill training since it has a great benefit in improving the level of gymnastics.
Social Difficulties, Emotional Difficulties, Disabled Women, Disability Category.
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 40 - 60
This study aimed at discovering the most important social-emotional difficulties which disabled woman faces in Amman, and their relation with disability category. Moreover, whether these difficulties are different from those the abled woman facing in Amman. The sample consisted (200) women with visual, auditory, and physical disabilities, and (55) normal women. Data gathered by a tool including (68) items, representing: anxiety, depression, isolation and dependency. Which achieved validity and reliability indications.
The results revealed: the disabled woman is suffering from social-emotional difficulties ranked in descending ordered as: anxiety, depression, Isolation, dependency. And there are significant differences concerning depression for physically disabled, anxiety for physically and auditory disabled, dependency for physically and visually disabled, the dimensions altogether for physical disabled. But not on the isolation dimension. Finally, the social-emotional difficulties facing the disabled woman differ from those facing the nondisabled on the anxiety and isolation, and dimensions altogether, but not on the depression and dependency dimensions.
The aim of the research is identifying fitness, the personal traits, anxiety and level of performance for first degree referees in the Iraqi central of union for football and the relationship to fitness, personal traits, and situation anxiety with their level of performance.
The researcher used the descriptive method, the sample included (50) first degree referees in Iraq. He conducted speed and endurance test for referees, as well as (Cattell) test for personal traits and another for anxiety situation. Then the researcher found the result of these variables. He identified the referees' performance level through the games supervisees' evaluation to the referees' performance which gets it from the Iraqi central Union for football.
The most important result that the research reached:
1- Referees had low levels of fitness by achieving high times in exhaustion performance in speed and endurance tests, with means of (7.079) for 50 m speed test and (20874) m for (12) minutes continuous run.
2- Referees had character traits (more intelligent, self controlled, confident in others, group dependent) of the means (7.12), (7.03), (3.88), (3.87) respectively.
3- Referees had a low level of anxiety with degrees of (62.6) while their level of performance was good with degrees of (7.864).
4- There are relationships between the variables (fitness, character traits, and situation anxiety) with the level of performance of referees pointed by the (R) results calculated by (Pearson) which was (0,38-), (0,67) and (0,47-) respectively.
Recommendations: putting forward new scientific methods for developing fitness for football players and working on training them by making them referee a lot to lower their degree of anxiety.
The study of hormonal alterations due to exercises of growing interest because of the implications for adaptation, performance, and health. This study investigated changes in Hormones level in response to exercise at the Individual Anaerobic Threshold (IAT) and recovery time of these Hormones. 17 healthy moderately fit young men (Aged 26 ±3 yr). After the determination of the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT), all subjects had to run on treadmill at 80% IAT (2.7±0.4m/s) for 90min. The exercise was continued by Control parameters heart rate, lactate concentration, pain perceive, fatigue scale, body temperature, and hormone parameters was examined with Cortisol, Testosterone and growth hormone. Blood was taken 30min before, immediately after exercise and 1, 2, 6. The exercise leads to a clear increase of the heart rate, lactate concentration, pain perceive, fatigue scale, body temperature (p<0.05). After standardised exercise a significant rises was found in the Cortisol 71%, Testosterone 116% and growth hormone concentration 34% (p<0.05). After 1hp exercise Significant lower levels was found (p<0.05) of the Cortisol 25%, Testosterone 31% and growth hormone concentration 90%. After 2hp exercise Significant lower levels was found (p<0.05) of the Cortisol 42%, Testosterone 41% and growth hormone concentration 98%. After 6hp exercise Significant lower levels was found (p<0.05) of the Cortisol 59%, Testosterone 38% and growth hormone concentration 98.5%. As a result endurance exercises at the Individual Anaerobic Threshold (IAT) lead to clear increase in Hormones level. On the other hand the growth hormone was faster recovered than the other Hormone.
Child Development, Infant Behavior Development, Infant Development, Behavior Rating Scales, Bayley Scales, Early Intervention, Child Assessment, Early Childhood Assessment, Early Childhood Diagnosis.
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 90 - 109
This study aimed at developing a behavior rating scale for children from age one to 42 months, as well as, deriving norms to be used in interpreting scores of cognitive and developmental scales at which the decision regarding a child's performance change from one classification to another. Also finding out psychometric properties of Jordanian version of behavior rating scale and used the scale to identify children behavior rating performance level from one to 42 months old.
After identifying behavior abilities (30) items were developed for the behavior rating scale which assess four factors included attention /arousal factor (1-5) months, the orientation/engagement factor (6-42 months), the motor quality factor (1-42) months and the emotional regulation factor (6-42 months).
Findings indicated that there was sufficient evidence of construct validity. Also reliability coefficients were calculated using cronbach alpha, test- retest method. The validity and reliability were acceptable.
Means and Standard Deviations of children performance were computed for the three group age. These means and standard deviations represent the performance level of the Jordanian children on the scale. The increments in children performances across age levels indicate progress in appropriate behavior.
Developmental norms were derived using the percentile method after examining the normality of children performance distribution on the scales and did the smoothing procedures.decisions regarding cutoff scores was based on specific criteria.