Nationalism and the West, nationalism and postcolonial theory, criticism of anti-colonial nationalism, problems of anti-colonial resistance, Frantz Fanon
Publication year: 2005
Although nationalism was the single most successful form of anti-colonial resistance in the Third World, recent Western-based scholarship, especially within the field of post-colonial literary and cultural theory, has generally tended to repudiate nationalism and delegitimise the modern nation (-state). While the traditional scholarship views nationalism as an exclusively Western idea, simply inappropriate to non-Western societies, socio-anthropological critics see the emergent nation-state in the Third World as consolidating imaginative colonial geographies and repeating a colonial practice of excluding or suppressing internal tribal and ethnic differences. Moreover, deconstructive critics argue that nationalism, by remaining locked up in a counter-discourse to Western imperialism, reproduces all the terms and structures of colonial discourse, and thus colludes with Western imperialism. Acknowledging some of these objections to anti-colonial nationalism, the article points out some of their serious critical shortcomings. Simultaneously, it draws attention to alternative ways of conceiving nation and nationalism, beyond the too simplified notions of “imitation,” “importation” and “imposition.” Finally, the article stresses the continued necessity of nationalism in the struggle against imperialism, and argues that although nationalism is in some sense the product of imperialism, nationalism’s objectives are not completely determined by its antagonist.
Despite the availability of certain studies concerned with Nabataean inscriptions, most of these studies are merely translated inscriptions and are not concerned enough with the other aspects of the Nabataean society such as the law, where the study of the Nabataean law and the legal tradition are of great importance. The research presented here is an attempt to illustrate the language and the structure of the Nabataeans’ legal inscriptions seeking to illustrate the different types of the legal traditions reflected by the Nabataean documents, and trying to point out its relation to other ancient legal systems in the region.
The purpose of this study is to show the different types of grammar, one of which is the interiorized grammar, and its importance in the foreign language teaching. This grammar came from innate and acquisition is to help learners to be native-like. The researcher presents in this paper some means that the teachers can use to create an interiorized grammar for learners. It is necessary for the teachers to concentrate on the use of the language to privilege the interiorized grammar which will be helpful to the learners to communicate correctly in the second language: to produce correct sentences in the suitable context. It is necessary for the teachers to concentrate on the use of the language in order to help learners to reach the sense (meaning) without concentrating much on the form (structure).
This study looks into the abbreviation structure in the BENI- F’TEH dialect and its relationship with standard Arabic as well as the frequency of its use. It also seeks to demonstrate the similarities and differences in both and accounts for them. It was found that:
- The scarcity of abbreviation in the words of the dialect, as compared with standard Arabic, is due to the fact that the former leans towards brevity and speed in utterance to save effort.
- Despite the difference in the frequency of abbreviations in both the dialect and standard language, there is great similarity between them in the way abbreviations both begin and end.
- The beginning with the short closed abbreviation, which standard language does not allow , is considered as one of the chief characteristics, not only of the dialect under study, but also of all the modern Arabic dialects generally.
The purpose of this study is to explain how the concept of power and security in the feminist theory presents a framework to study conflict resolution. The study argues that the feminist theory perspective of negations must be adopted in order to solve problems, and shows that the lack of women’s participation in decision-making during war and peace contributed to the lack of presence of women’s perspective in international relations.
The study aims at addressing the following questions:
- How women’s position in international relations decision-making is likely to make change and development.
- How gender differentiates between women’s and men’s perspectives in international relations.
- How women perspective in international relations considers the interests of women and children.
The second part of the study discusses the Palestinian case and women’s role in the first and second “Intifadah”.
The finding of the study is that Palestinian women have not been given the opportunity to participate in decision-making, and contribute to the development of international relations. It confirms that there are gender differences in the perspectives on the subject of establishment of an independent Palestinian state, and that women’s perspective considers the interests of women and children through the advocacy of women’s associations.
The study recommends that women’s organizations take a more active role in the decision-making processes in the international arena, through cooperation among women’s organizations on an international level.
Other, Al- Muhassin Al-Tanukhi, Al- Akhbar, Cultural Progress, Inability to Understand
Publication year: 2005
The research studies the features of the other in some chosen writings of Al- Muhassin Al-Tanukhi.
The research defines the other and traces the beginnings of its appearance in the Arabic Islamic culture in the Holy Quran, then gradually in the writings of travelers and geographers.
The study moves then to deal with the image of the other in the writings of Al- Muhassin Al-Tanukhi. The research reaches the conclusion that the image of the other in his writings is not a stereotype, because he acknowledges the other despite his difference. The image presented ranges from an admiration that does not reach the stage of infatuation, to that of astonishment and refusal due to lack of understanding. Al-Tanukhi tends to derive his idea of the other from refrentials such as: the reasons behind writing, the cultural progress and the inability to understand.
Finally, the research closes with the way of presenting the news, which is divided into two parts: the first includes simple constructions that are confined to the continual narration of an event or an incident, while the second has complex constructions called narrative breeding phenomenon that contains scenes and characters.
This paper shows the antithetical manifestations in the poetry of 'Al-'Abbas Ibn. 'Al-'Ahnaf. The term "antithetical" here refers to giving prominence to contrasting and contradictory situations within the poetic psyche or between this poetic psyche and people, places, time, beasts, etc… as would form an innovative vision of life. Antithetical in this context does not refer to rhetorical antitheticalism. It refers to the welters of contradictory feelings in his psyche which he reflected in the text of his verses. This paper's author seeks to put forward these antithetical manifestations, the meaning behind them and their effects on the reader.
This study aims to explore the way the great Abbasid Calif, Haroon Al-Rashid was perceived, described and depicted in the poetry of a number of poets who lived in his time. His palace in Baghdad or Baqqa attracted a great number of poets who praised his piety, courage, achievements and military conquests. They also praised his wise policies in dealing with internal mattars, his notable generousity and his noble ancestry which goes back to the family of the Prophet.
Their poetry was structured in congruence with the thematic contents. Some, however, maintained traditional forms to satisfy Al-Rashid’s poetic expectations.
Most of this poetry revolved around the theme of praising the perceived virtues of Al-Rashid.
However, he did not escape some criticism of some of his policies as depicted in some of the related poetry.
When he died, some poets expressed sorrow and grief in their poems, although these did not represent the same artistic standard as those which praised his virtues and achievements.
The project of this paper is to present a detailed description of modularity hypothesis, its versions, its major schools of thought, its evolutionary aspects, and inherent problems. This hypothesis suggests that the human mind is compartmentalized into components or modules, which are specialized on certain types of information. This is the gist of strong version of modularity hypothesis, which is a direct hypothesis on mind and comprehension. The weak version is concerned with the descriptive aspects of discourse organization. The paper also reviews the major research studies relevant to the occurrence of pragmatic module. This has been supported by pieces of evidence from aphasia, right hemisphere damage, autism, Theory of Mind, and developmental pathology. With this survey of literature as a backdrop, we have suggested a bus-oriented modular system of mind from a semantic-pragmatic perspective.
The present study was designed to test hypotheses about motivation in the academic setting according to social psychology approach and personality approach. The study used an instrument that measures goal orientation: mastery, performance and failure avoidance (Elliot and Church, 1997). Two samples participated in the study: one from public schools and one from the university. The study revealed that mastery goals and performance goals are an appropriate conceptual framework in the Arab culture. Also, it was found that the two kinds of goals correlate with a larger magnitude than was found in the western studies. The study confirmed that goals don’t necessarily lead to achievement. Boys and girls showed differences as how the two kinds of goals are related.
This research studies (Attuqyah) phenomenon in the poetry of Al-Shareef Al-Radhy compared with that of Al-Abbas Ibn Al-Ahnaf in such areas, where both of them start from the same ideology.
The approach is a stylistic one bringing close relationship between aesthetic criticism and linguistics. The starting point of the research is the idea of literary tools used by the poet. It also adopts the approach of poetic stylistics which rejects the notion of “closed text” and the poet ̉s death in exchange for the “survival” of the critic. It shows that both the critic and the poet are newly born. It is an approach which believes in the close relationship between the poet and his surrounding though it starts from within the text not from outside. This approach does not also become satisfied with the structural distribution only; rather it interprets and justifies the linguistic phenomenon, be it sounds, words, structure, dictionary and context, in terms of psychology and aesthetics and in line with the principle of vertical and horizontal distribution at the same time. This is due to the consideration that the task of the stylistics critic is beyond linguistics not linguistics per se.
In conclusion, the research is considered an applied one keeping away as much as possible from theorization since the main concentration is on understanding the text by recognizing its inner cohesion. Therefore, the whole text should be within the domain of interpretation and explanation.
This study aimed at describing and analyzing the social and demographic characteristics of women in higher administration in the private sector. It also aimed at understanding factors that help women administrators succeed in their jobs and the traits of women leaders.
A sample of 50 women was randomly selected from women who are in higher administration positions in the commercial and industrial projects. The study showed that most women working in higher administration were highly educated and mostly married. The factors that helped them reach such positions were due primarily to their families’ economic status, the support of parents and spouses in addition to characteristics such as ambition, skill, competence, and the capability to overcome problems. In contrast, the major factors that hindered women from reaching high administrative positions included difficulty of harmonizing their time at home with outside activities, lack of capital and low self- confidence.
The study also indicated that women leaders should possess a sense of responsibility ability to make appropriate decisions and self-confidence in managing their staff.
The study deals with the role of water in the three crises of Ubay Ibn Muqbil, namely: his distance from Jahili (pre-Islamic) life, and his separation from Dahma` his beloved wife, and his old age. He uses the theme of water to alleviate his grief, and it helps him to nostalgically resort to the past through his memories- and after his conversion to Islam. The researcher pursues an interpretative method which interprets water in the poetry verses through its indication of life, vitality and energy- an interpretation that helped the researcher to apprehend the purpose intended by the poet from including the element of water in his poems. He connected this element to the mentioned indication in an implicit manner.
The researcher adopts in his study of this role- and upon it she based the sections of her study- the view of the poet in dealing with his crises- in a manner that led him in some of his poems to simple solutions which included the previous indications, and in other respects led him to philosophical solutions which reveal the awareness of the poet of the extent of his issues and problems, and the manner in which he dealt with them, alongside his understanding of life in a way that encompasses both himself and others.
The poet utilizes in his discussion of water rhetorical tools such as metonymy and comparison, and thematic elements in the verses- which help him to attain his desired aim- insofar as referring to water in his poems to convey his crises, alongside his striving to solve them in a moral way.
This study is a structural approach intended to investigate aesthetics on the basis of the theory of semantics, which utilizes the methods of intensifying significance. The theory of syntactic semantics functions in evaluating the syntactic thought for the purpose of giving the Arabic language a description which explores aesthetics in an attempt to locate the linguistic phenomenon.
This research demonstrates that Ibn Jinni concludes that the inner linguistic talent is the base of the structure of the text. The paper undertakes to answer three questions:
1-What is the reason for rejecting the operator theory?
2-What is the function of this theory in linguistic structure?
3-What is the relation between this theory and the inflectional marker?
This research consists of four parts: The theory of syntactic semantics, syntax as the key to explore the text, the relation between inflection and semantics, and the operator theory between acceptance and rejection.
Poverty, Poverty Line, Poverty in Jordan
Publication year: 2005
The main aim of the present study is to determine the percentage of poor people in the remote areas of the southern region in Jordan, using absolute and abject poverty lines. The study depends on a sample survey of (203) families. The study has found the abject poverty line amounts to JD (120.3) per month for the family having the average size of (8.19) persons according to the suggested food basket method, which has been prepared for this study, whereas the abject poverty line according to the methodology of actual food pattern was found to be JD (122.2) per month.
Therefore, the percentage of people who live under the abject poverty line was about (9.3%) for both methodologies. On the other hand, the absolute poverty line according to the relative importance of expenditure on basic needs has been found to be JD (204.3) per month; hence, the percentage of people who live under the absolute poverty line was about (37.3%) and the absolute poverty line according to the methodology of actual food pattern was about JD (225.03) per month for the family. Accordingly, the percentage of people who live under this line has been found to be (45.6%). According to the (POVCAL) program, the absolute poverty line has been found to be JD (262) per month for a single family and the percentage of people who live under this line was about (70.4%). According to the national poverty line which amounted to JD (156) per family, the percentage of people who live under this line was about (22.8%). Therefore, we have found that the methodology of (POVCAL) program and the advertised national poverty line are far away from reality, whereas the methodology of actual pattern and the method of food basket are close to each other and more realistic when we take large family size in consideration.
The study recommends to use one measurement of poverty and to be revised yearly according to the economic situation of the family at those remote areas.