Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 32, Issue 2

Syria’s Representation in the French Traveler Volney`s Book “Voyage to Egypt and Syria ” (1787)

en
Authors: Mohamed Al-Hasanat
Keywords: Syria, Volney, Voyage to the Orient, Representation of Other
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 1 - 14

Abstract

When the young man (Volney) sailed from Marseille in December 1782 heading for the east, he was a modest traveler with a fragile health and was unknown with a careful personality. He headed east without any help or support where he stayed for three years. After his return to France, he published a comprehensive book about Egypt and Syria under the title “Voyage to Egypt and Syria”, which was immediately recognized as a successful book and due to abundant and recent information, Volney had become the model of “the philosopher- traveler”, to be followed. This research aims at studying Volney’s travel to Syria in particular, because it is a very rich reservoir of documents about Syria. This book has drawn our attention due to what it has of various and important topics and because it sheds light on some unrevealed Syrian customs, traditions and various institutions. Thus, this study aims at answering the following questions: - What is the nature of Volney`s relation with the other (the Oriental)? - To what extent could the author control this relation? - How did the author embody the pretended scientific discourse that he resorted to in order to convey his impressions? - What is the precise function of the critical discourse against the tyrant regime in Syria during that era? - What are the stylistic and syntactic devices used by the author to ensure the text coherence and help specify Volney`s project with clarity?

Paleodietary Assessment of Skeletal Remains from ‘Queen Alia International Airport’ Using Ca, Sr and Zn Analysis

en
Authors: Abdulla Al-Shorman
Keywords: Paleodiet, Trace Elements, Roman Period, Ribs, Jordan
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 15 - 21

Abstract

To investigate the paleodiet of the inhabitants of Queen Alia International Airport (a 3rd century AD site in Middle Jordan), the concentration of Ca, Sr, and Zn were analyzed in 22 samples from the ribs of 22 human skeletons. Ten more soil samples from 10 graves were also analyzed. The concentrations of Sr, Ca and Zn were measured using the Atomic Mass Absorption method at the laboratories of the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Yarmouk University. The correlation coefficient and the standard deviation statistics of the results pointed to little if any soil/bone exchange of the above elements and also indicated homogenous soil samples. The results show that the inhabitants at QAIA consumed both protein and plant food with no discrimination.

Quantitative Analysis of News in Jordan: Empirical Study

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Authors: Mohammed Issa Shahateet
Keywords: Quantitative analysis, Analysis of Variance, Correlation and Regression, News Analysis
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 22 - 33

Abstract

This study depends mainly on the theory of quantitative research to analyse news in Jordan. The study also employs some quantitative analysis techniques that are needed to describe its findings and test its hypotheses. Its general goals are to identify specific factors that may constrain or facilitate the production of certain kinds of news, explore explanations of news worthiness, and identifies factors affecting news coverage. The results of the study are based on a sample of 3,352 news items that were collected from newspapers, TV and radio over a span of some 50 days. Four hypotheses about topics and dominance of certain news rather than others are tested. The study concludes that Jordanian newspapers reflect certain important issues such as political, cultural, economic and other social news more than TV which, in turn, presents these issues more often than the radio.

Students' Attitudes toward Woman Labor: A Field Study on Undergraduate Students at the University of Jordan

en
Authors: Mohamed A. El-Daks , Salah H. Al-Louzi
Keywords: Woman work, students' attitudes, work components, occupations and gender
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 34 - 49

Abstract

This study aims to understand attitudes of bachelor students of the University of Jordan toward woman work. A stratified random sample of 400 students was derived from the faculties of social and human sciences and the faculties of pure sciences; 200 each. Data were gathered by means of a questionnaire through an interview. Attitudes' scale included forty statements representing four components (family, economic, psycho-social, and administrative components). Sample's outputs were analyzed by using qualitative and quantitative statistical procedures, including frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Findings showed that there is a difference with statistical significance between respondents' attitudes and their gender. Conversely, there were no differences with statistical significance between respondents' attitudes and the variables of faculty, education, parents' education and professional status, family size, and income. To sum up, students’ attitudes toward woman labor were positive with a mean of 3.41 according to Likert scale with five items. The study also presented some recommendations.

Religious Intertexte in the Poetry of Talaea Iben Ruzeik

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Authors: Thanaa Najati Ayyash
Keywords: Intertextualite, Hypertextualite, Quotation, Dissolution and Absorption
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 50 - 68

Abstract

Upon reading the collection of poems (diwan) of Ibn Ruzeik, one can feel clearly the prominence of religious intertexte phenomenon in his poetry. His attention will be drawn to the great areas that the religious quotations (Koran Kareem and Hadeeth Shareef) occupy in his poetic discourse. This research aims at displaying the techniques that the poet followed in using the mechanisms of religious intertexte in his poetry. It tries to reveal his ability in re-forming what he inspired from the absent texts in new forms. Therefore, this research is only an analytic, applied study of the types of religious intertexte that his collection (diwan) includes. The methodology of this research is based on bringing out the intertexte from its positions in the (diwan) and clarifying its role in performing the meaning from the rhetorical (technical) phase and the objective (intellectual) phase as well.

Mental Health of Workers and Its Relation with Some Sides of Work Environment in the Medical Industry Sector in Jordan

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Authors: Sumaya Al-Ja’afreh , Fares Helmi
Keywords: Mental Health, Anxiety, Depression, Stress, Work Environment
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 69 - 88

Abstract

This study examines the nature of interactions between mental health as a whole and its individual components as experienced by those who work on the production lines in pharmaceutical factories in Jordan on one hand, and with the psychological dimensions of the work environment as a whole and its individual components on the other hand. The questionnaires used in the study were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), constructed by Goldberg and Williams, and the Psychological Dimensions of the Work Environment constructed by Moos. The size of the sample was 250 participants, 191 of whom were males and 59 were females. The study results demonstrate that a statistically significant positive correlation exists between workers’ mental health and the work environment. The results revealed also, that the correlation is statistically significant among mental health as a whole and work involvement, friendship and cooperation between workers, management support for workers, autonomy in performing one’s tasks, task clarity, management planning and forward thinking, and convenient natural environmental circumstances of the work place. In addition, the results demonstrated that the relationships dimension in the psychological dimensions of the work environment are significantly correlated to anxiety and effectiveness of the social functions in the GHQ questionnaire.

Abstract

This study investigates the issue of the three islands of UAE (Abu Musa, Tunb Alkubra and Tunb Al Sughra) to present a documented historical research along almost two centuries about. It deals with the development of the Arabian-Iranian conflict regarding the ownership of these islands and the repeated Iranian claims and attempts to occupy them by force. It studies also the British role in this issue. The study , which depended mainly on British and Arab documents, concluded that these islands have been historically connected with the two Emirates of Ras al-Khaimeh and Al Sharjeh and that their relationship is rooted centuries ago. Hence , the Iranian ownership claims are illegal inspite of the documents Iran used to support its claimed historical right.

University Students' Use, Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Computers and ICTs: Comparative Study between Two Jordanian Universities: A Sociological-Educational Approach

en
Authors: Abdel Mahdi Abdallah Alsoudi , Adnan Abdelsalam Adaieleh
Keywords: University Students, Use, Knowledge, ICT, Internet, Computer, Jordan, Universities
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 106 - 120

Abstract

This study explores undergraduate students' use of knowledge and attitudes towards computer and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at two colleges in Amman and Albalqa universities. The study examines how students use computers during their learning and studies and what institutional, organizational and individual factors influence this use. It also examines the relationship between students' use of computers, their attitudes towards ICT and how these change during their studies. The research is a comparative study involving a sample of undergraduate students studying at the faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in the University of Jordan and at Princess Rahmah University College in Albalqa University during 2003. The study reveals that about half of the students own their computers, two-thirds use computers, less than 5% use the computer and ICTs in the classroom, the majority has no training on how to use those technologies and there are no ICTs in the classrooms. Results show that there are significant differences among students related to computers’ use, to the benefits of students from the University of Jordan, and to those who are in their 2nd and 3rd years, who own a computer and believe it has positive effects on their study. No significant differences were found related to students’ sex and residence. Finally, the results show that there is a positive correlation between students' use, ownership and level of studies and their attitudes towards using those technologies in learning and private life.

Abstract

This article invites policy makers to reframe some familiar policy debates on water through using history .While violence has occurred and will continue to occur around water, water is far more humanity’s learning ground for building community than it is a cause of war. Increased interdependence through water sharing plans and infrastructure networks can be seen as increases of our flexibility and capacity to respond to exigencies of nature and reduce our vulnerability to events such as droughts and floods and thereby increase security. The history of social organization around river basins and watersheds is humanity’s richest records of our dialogue with nature. It is among the most fertile areas for learning about the political and technical interaction. The spatial and functional characteristics of the river basin started to be formalized into legal and administrative terms. The direction of the flow of rivers influenced the movement of civilization. Rivers have been crucial to means of communication leading to the formation of political units. The article concludes with calling for new ethics in water management. It calls for an ethic built on a sense of purpose and on an active co-designing with nature and not solely on preservation; a balance between humans and technology and among structure and on-structure approaches; and a new balance of the sacred and utilitarian in water.

Zakah, Moderation in Expenditure, and Total Consumption in an Islamic Economy

en
Authors: Buthaina M.A. Muhtaseb
Keywords: Zakah, Moderation in Expenditure, Total Consumption, Islamic Economy
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 131 - 145

Abstract

Much of the literature on Islamic economics in the realm of Zakah and its relation to total consumption has so far been looking at the eight categories of Zakah recipients, specified in the Holy Qur’an, as if they were one group, the poor. The present paper attempts to treat each category separately. The Marginal Propensity to Consume (MPC) is not assumed but has been investigated by analyzing the way designed in Islam to spend Zakah funds. The final effect on consumption has directly been obtained by finding the net change in the consumption of Zakah payers and the sum of changes in the consumption of the sections (similar categories in MPCs) of Zakah recipients. Comparison of the (MPC) of Zakah payers with the sum of the (MPCs) of Zakah recipients’ sections, weighted with the relative share of each section in Zakah funds, would result in the short run, if other things remain the same, in an increase , decrease , or no change in total consumption. The final result is basically subjected to empirical situations. In particular, to the amount of Zakah funds, and the way the ruler chooses to allocate those funds among the recipients. The net result, after adding moderation in expenditure (or elimination of Israf), would be a decline in total consumption in some cases, but undetermined in others.

Abstract

This study aims to recover one of the important criteria, not recovered yet in judging some extraneous Arabic words. This criterion is the criterion of exotic words, whereas the term of extraneousness had taken its criterion according to old Arab grammarians; touching the word from other languages. In order to make this clear, this study tried to fund the olds’ trial to investigate the might, they perhaps had, in the comparative linguistics to classify the word within strangeness as they saw, taking from Gharib Al-Hadith and Al-Athar as an applicative theme. The study was divided into three parts: 1- Alienate of Semitic languages. 2- Alienate of Indo-European languages. 3- Alienate of exotic words, which weren't enrooted in the languages they belong to. This study also aimed to use the comparative method in order to access this purpose, so that it tried to collect the olds’ knowledge about those languages in their mother lexicons.

Abstract

This paper tackles an important case among those relevant to comparative linguistic lessons. Basically, it deals with the glottal stop “ Hamzah” of the Arabic definite article “Al”. Meanwhile, it ends with the fact that its origin emerged from “Ha” which apparently exists in the Arabic Demonstrative “Hada”. The present researcher adopted a comparative descriptive procedure through which he showed how the definite article and the demonstrative semantically meet, and how such phenomena linguistically match in structure in semitic languages. The researcher concluded that the prefix “Ha” which is used to give “warnings” is, in its origin, relevant to the glottal stop “Hamzah” in the Arabic definite article “Al”, since there is a big similarity in terms of semantic denotation in certain contextual debates.

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the effect of the educational level on the women participation in taking different decisions, like personal decisions, family budget decisions, and those decisions related to family affairs, others related to social relations, also, decisions related to her children, recognizing the factors that help women in taking the family decisions as women see them. To achieve these aims, the researchers prepared a measuring distribution fulfilled with truth and stability, and it was given to a group of (194) of house wives in Sana’ city. After that, the distributions were analyzed by using the Chi Square at level (0.05). The research workers reached a group of results: 1. There is a constant relation between the woman’s educational level and giving her a kind of independency in her special decisions. 2. The high educational level of the woman led to more participation in some special decisions in the family affairs like the decisions of buying clothes. 3. The high educational level of the woman led to increase her participation in some special social decisions like visiting her parents. 4. The high educational level increased the woman’s participation in decisions related to her sons and daughters like continuing education, and daughter’s marriage. The factors that help women to participate in family decisions, as the women in the study see them, are: the understanding between the husband and wife, educating the wife and her daughters, self confidence, strong personality, husband’s education, woman’s going out for work, the social growing up, the social compatibility between husband and wife.

Mohammad Ibn Abdullah (Al-Nafs Al-Zakeya) and His Brother Ibrahim 145 A.H.l762-763 A.D.

en
Authors: Esam Mustafa Oqlah
Keywords: Abbasid age, Mohammad Al-Nafs Al-Zakeya, Scholars, Jurists, Revolution and Opposition Movements
Publication year: 2005
Pages: 195 - 216

Abstract

This study seeks to explore positions of Muslim scholars –including jurists, narrators of the Prophet’s sayings, readers, linguists, and historians- with regards to the movement of Mohammad Ibn Abdullah and his brother Ibrahim. The study attempts to discuss these positions whether those of support or opposition, and to find out the reasons that promoted these scholars to adopt them in order to determine whether they were based on intellectual convictions or personal attitudes, and if they were in harmony with the total Islamic position on this issue. The focus of the study was on applications of these positions towards the movement, taking into consideration the theoretical framework behind these attitudes. The significance of these positions can be traced to the importance of the movement itself as it was one of the most significant armed movements against the Abbasid state and the most important one of the Allawis in that century.

Abstract

The study aims at analyzing the reality of the collective security, which the U.N. has been seeking since its establishment to establish and adapt it through its charter, and to apply it for all its aspects for achieving the concepts of the international security and peace. Also, the study aims at clarifying the law dialectic related to the human and political concepts and tries to search the lawful interventionism and justifications of the other. For Iraq as a case study, the study discusses the effective elements in the collective security. After the objective analysis, the study concluded that the collective security becomes threatened passing over its theoretical concepts, because of the absence of the international authority and increasing interests of the greater states.