Public speaking is an issue that has imposed serious problems for a large number of individuals in different situations, occasions, settings and fields of study and/or work. It is a source of affliction that is likely to interfere though with varying degrees, with speakers’ academic achievements as well as career enhancement and eventually promotions.
The present study lends itself to exploring laloscopophobia (public speaking anxiety) from various dimensions and perspectives. It also attempts to discuss the nature of laloscopophobia by investigating its background in terms of definitions, labels, rank and symptoms. More specifically, it seeks to demonstrate factors that debilitate successful speaking required to meeting speakers’ and audience expectations. A further goal is to present key principles, intervention techniques and reduction procedures that have been developed to help phobic combat their fear and boost their confidence. Basic elements that constitute a good speech are also highlighted. In addition, the applicability of the offered strategies to apprehensive speakers is further investigated. Research findings show that public speaking anxiety is found in versatile categories of speakers, presenters, performers, students and individuals who are assigned to accomplish a certain oral task. Moreover, these findings reveal that it is treatable on the grounds that afflicted persons acknowledge their fear and their level of communication apprehension, make use of the successful applicable methods, benefit from relaxation exercises and visualization strategies investigated so far, and adopt an audience centered approach in order to solve this problem.
Attempts aimed at enhancing inter-Arab integration have been abound. Unfortunately, to date, these efforts have been unsatisfactory and indeed discouraging. This paper critically evaluates previous attempts by shedding light on the underlying reasons that made closer inter-Arab integration difficult to achieve. Lack of genuine committments, the absence of private sector involvement, and political considerations have been key factors that have inhibited the expansion of inter-Arab trade relations.
However, developments that have unfolded in the global political system and their implications on the regional dynamics have given impetus to what could be termed as sub-regionalism. Influenced by the concept of sub-regional integration, four Arab countries (Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco) signed the Agadir Declaration in May 2001. The primary objective is to enhance trade and cooperation amongst this group of like-minded states. This paper makes that case that the Agadir Declaration, if managed properly, has the potential of taking the issue of regional integration to a higher gear.
This study discusses the Reconciliation and Reparation Agreement, which the German government under Chancellor Conrad Adenauer signed with Israel and the World Jewish Congress in Luxemburg in September 10, 1952.
Among the major aims of the German policy were ending of the occupation and the start of gradual regaining of national sovereignty. It was necessary, however, to reach reconciliation with the jews and compensate them for what they suffered from under the Nazi rule. At the beginning of the negotiations, Adenauer’s government came under external pressures to meet all the demands of Israel and the jews who were represented by the Zionist Leader Nahum Goldmann.
Finally, the Reconciliation and Reparations Agreement (Das Wiedergutmachungsabkommen) between the Federal German Republic and Israel, and between Federal Germany and the World Jewish Congress was signed in Luxemburg.
Accordingly, the German Republic was committed to pay Israel the amount of 3 billion German marks in finances and goods and 450 million marks in compensations to individuals and jews within a period not to exceed 14 years.
This study will deal with the following questions:
How were the negotiations conducted? What is the content of the agreement? What did Federal Germany achieve? What did Israel gain from it? What were the reactions to the agreement?
The Arabic music had played a big role in the development of the Western music. Western civilization has been based on the compositions of the great Arab scientists and philosophers in the Middle Centuries; music in particular. Afterwards, Western music began on growing in that field more and more which had influenced the Arabic music that had been frozen for a while and stopped its development and then started to have an effect during the Middle centuries through the Islamic victories, the Arabs entering “Andalus”, Zeryab having to spread the traditional music – schooling in Baghdad to the Westerners, and the Spanish music has its own effect on the Arabic music whereas this influence has reached Italy and the rest of the European countries.
Having some of the musicians arriving from the Roman and Persian countries and those who carried amongst them new rhythms and different music instruments had a conspicuous effect on the Arabic music. The Arabic music has been spread continuously during the Ottoman period for the Arab countries, worthwhile the Arabic music has acquired many terms, and many non-Arabic musical and instrumental forms. This is a result of the scholarships and musical conferences. The researcher provided many examples of professional Arab musicians, as Egypt which is a great example representing other Arab countries. In addition, the researcher tried to analyze the Jordanian modern music to give proof on the Western effect in the Arabic music.
The intention of this research is to shed light on what notions the linguists and grammarians had thought imagined and put into their minds about illusion. They used these notions in order to interpret linguistic and morphological phenomena in the Arabic speech that departed from Arab’s habits and convention which they used to call abnormals and/or anecdotes in an attempt to subjugate them to the popular standards of analogy.
Such phenomena are, in my convention, nothing but speech patterns, forms or styles approved and used in Arabic, and known by experts and those who care for it. They are also evidences of Arabic vastness and rhetorical versatility.
Muscle – Relaxing Techniques, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Publication year: 2005
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the muscle relaxing technique in reducing the levels of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Syndromes among undergraduate students at the University of Jordan. To achieve this purpose, the researcher selected a purposive sample of (40) undergraduate students, (17) of them were diagnosed with a moderate and a severe degree of PTSD.
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the muscle relaxing technique, the researcher employed "Jacobson Technique", diagnosis of the disorder was reached to in accordance to (DSM, IV, 1999 and Al-Kobysee scale).
The results indicate that the muscle relaxing technique was effective in reducing (PTSD) symptoms in these students, and this reduction continues through time, because of the use of this technique.
The researcher recommended that a periodical and regular diagnosis of (PTSD) in the university students should be applied, and that they should be directed to use muscle – relaxing techniques.
This research has always been in my mind and my attention for a long period of time; it raises many questions whether the Arabic and (waw) is considered to be a conjunction (Atf) or (Al- Maeyah).
Tracing the historical background between early Arab grammarians, I found that it is a contradictory issue in all its particles, starting from the concept of "and" (waw), passing through the noun dative case of the factor after "and" (waw), ending with nominal case after "and" (waw) from being a conjunction (Atf) to being Al-Maeyah, and the acceptability of this between grammarians. In conclusion, I found that the semantic environment governs the decision whether to consider "and" as a conjunction (Atf) or Al- Maeyah.
Although grammarians- sometimes- contradict each other when they consider Al- Maeyah in meaning as a conjunction in function, therefore; I accept the view that goes along with nature and logic when the environment indicates the lexical, semantic or time to adopt it.
NATO Strategy in the Middle East, NATO’s Mediterranean Initiative- Mediterranean Politics, NATO and the Middle East, NATO’s Role in the Mediterranean, NATO and the Iraqi crisis and NATO and the Arab World
Publication year: 2005
This paper is an attempt to identify and understand the future relationship between the NATO’s Mediterranean policy and the Arab World.
It tries to examine the themes, dimensions and the leading obstacles and challenges that influence the relationship between the two sides, and how this relationship affects security and political stability in the region.
The main themes of this paper are:NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue: What and Why?
NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue: Structure and Mechanisms .Why the Initiative: Importance, Purposes and Fears?
How Did the Concerned Arab States Receive NATO’s Initiative and How Did their Positions in This Regard Change?
Where do NATO Members Stand Regarding NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue?
NATO and the Iraqi Crisis.
Finally, The Mediterranean Dialogue: Challenges and Obstacles.
The scope of the study starts from the beginning of the NATO’s Mediterranean Initiative in the mid of 1990s to the first decade of the 21 century .
During the second decade of the twentieth century, the advent of Imagism led by Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot in Anglo-American poetry coincided with the rise of Acmeism in Russia, led by Osip Mandelstam and Anna Akhmatova.
Being a study that belongs to the field of comparative literature, it is a study of analogy that reveals the correspondences between Imagism and Acmeism as they manifest themselves in the works of Eliot and Mandelstam. In the total absence of cross cultural exchanges between the two movements at the time, the study attributes the analogies in their works to the use of the same sources, for innovation, in the European cultural heritage as well as to the socio-political factors surrounding the comparison of their works.
Problematic Issues, Political Development, Arab World, Human Rights
Publication year: 2005
This study aims at discussing the problem of political development in the Arab World.
It deals with theoretical origin vis-à-vis the concept of comprehensive social progress of the cohesive and specific society which guarantees both participation and social justice.
Also, the study indicates numerous human development models such as the liberal model that exists on a basis of individual freedom, the authoritative model that exists on the idea of power and finally, the socialistic model that exists on the idea of social justice.
Therefore, we have demonstrated the value of political development, the reality in the Arab World focus on the political development as civilized comprehensive project so as to introduce the real development in the Arab World after what have been gone through, so as to come over the political, social and economic problems.
This study entitled "Promoting domestic tourism in developing countries; An analytical study of Jordan's experiment from the point of view of a group of Jordanian tourists in Petra" aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of domestic tourism promotional programs performed by the Ministry of Tourism and the Jordan Tourism Board in cooperation with other tourism organizations and institutions in the Kingdom. The actual study sample consists of 136 Jordanian tourists in Petra during the period August- December 2003. SPSS was used to calculate the averages, standard deviations, frequencies, variance and statistical relations. Nearly 80% of the participants stayed at 3-5 star hotels in Petra. Among the main factors that motivated Jordanians to participate in the program were the attractiveness of the place, spending leisure time with family, friends and relatives, and benefiting from the price offers. Around 88% of the participants spent 2 nights in Petra, and 46% spent JD 150 or more during the tour.
The study sample highly evaluated the attractiveness of the place and food and beverages services, while the sample negatively evaluated the entertainment activities and the availability of entertainment facilities and services for children.
This study recommended paying more consideration to promoting domestic tourism , promoting new tourism patterns in different areas of the country, making available and accessible the required facilities and services that suite the capabilities and preferences of Jordanians, and focusing on promoting family, youth and organized tours for Jordanian citizens.
This research aims at studying teaching Arabic as a second language relying on language application theories, based on pairing theory and application. To show this, this study is divided into four main parts: phonology, etymology, syntax and semantics. Then, it explains how these parts are connected to teaching and learning Arabic through language goals, teaching methodologies, pedagogy and evaluation. This study is furthered to investigate the teacher and how he/she relates to the core of the entire purpose concerning the students’ psychological, social and linguistics characteristics.
The research shows the importance of the difficulties which students encounter regarding human characteristics, linguistic, ideologies and civilization of the learner. All in all, this is crucial because the teacher must possess the scholastic skills such as: linguistics, culture and profession.
This study aims at examining the thoughts of Avecinna concerning phonetics, phonology and semantics, in light of modern linguistics. The study observed that he described the nature of sound, pitch and intensity, and he described the articulation apparatus, especially larynx, thyroid, arytenoids and the cricoid.
Then he described evidently the Arabic consonants, firstly the stops, fricatives, laterals, rolleds, and lately the nasals. After that he described the vowels.
He added to all of this his view about the relation between the sound and the meaning which looks like the view of contemporary semanticists.
This article aims at revealing the factors that contribute to the phenomenon of cognitive connection in Su’ad Al-Sobah’s diwan “Elayka Ya Waladi”, especially since these factors immensely influence the presence of cohesion in the poems.
The article begins with the definition of connection, cognitive connection, and poetic structure. It then moves to the discussion of the following factors: reference, meaningful repetition, logical connection and linguistic style.
It concludes with the observation that all the above – mentioned factors have played an important role in establishing the cognitive connection of the Diwan, which in turn achieved its cohesion and relatedness.