Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 33, Issue 1

Formation des objectifs et objectifs de formation Besoins langagiers d'apprentissage en français de l'hôtellerie en Jordanie

en
Authors: Akram A. Odeh
Keywords: French for Hotel Management, Functional Approach, Analysis of Needs, Teaching Objectives, Framework of Linguistic Reference, Teaching and Learning.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 1 - 11

Abstract

The current approaches in teaching, especially the functional approach in teaching foreign languages for specific purposes, no longer place great importance on curricula per se. Emphasis has shifted to students and their specific linguistic needs. Thus, when designing textbooks for teaching a language for specific purposes, it becomes essential to take into consideration students’ needs, their reasons for studying any particular language, their level of proficiency in that language and the envisaged time frame for learning it. Market needs are also another important consideration. This study, which adopts the functional approach, examines issues related to teaching French for beginners specializing in hotel management. There are currently no specialized textbooks by either Arab or French publishers. However, there is a pressing need to design such textbooks to teach «French for Hotel Management» courses on offer by all departments of hotel management at Arab universities in general and Jordanian universities in particular. These departments aim to train students and equip them with the necessary language proficiency required by the market place. The study also includes a questionnaire which assesses students’ needs and requirements. The analysis based on the questionnaire provides recommendations for designing and developing textbooks which correspond to both students’ and markets’ needs.

The Impact of Jurisprudence on Andalusian Husbandry Research and Writing

en
Authors: Mustafa A. Ghnaimat
Keywords: Jurisprudence, Husbandry research.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 12 - 25

Abstract

This piece of research goes beyond the historical view of husbandry science in the Arab-Islamic culture. It actually looks into Andalusian husbandry through its renovation and development. The aim of this study is to understand the Andalusians’ approach and thinking of their husbandry issues. It also focuses on the epistemic aspect of this science in terms of vision, methodology and intellectual devices on the one hand, and the impact of jurisprudence on this particular kind of science on the other. The fact that husbandry scientists are simultaneously jurisprudents in Andalusia, allows us to extend links between husbandry and jurisprudence within the Andalusian general intellectual structure, namely in light of the ability reflected in their writings to render Arabic vocabulary obedient to husbandry contents based on a positive vision where their scientific methodology is established. In addition, they have brought in many jurisprudence terms and methods to husbandry research and writing. And this is what this study tries to tackle.

Abstract

This research shows the spread out of violence programs either on T.V. programmes or films, and the race between T.V. and satellite channels to produce such programs and how to attract the audience to watch them. The importance of this study stems from that it’s the first field study about violence and the spread out of it through T.V. programmes. The researcher depends on the opinion of young people towards these programmes and their effect through and after watching. The research proves at last that these programmes and films affect the behaviors of young people from different sides.

Abstract

This study aims to show the extent of the Jordanian women participation in the parliamentary elections, and to know why the women were unable to win any seats in the direct election. The study adopted the survey approach, and used the data of the 2003 parliamentary elections. It is relevant that the Jordanian women,s participation played a big role in the parliamentary elections. The study results showed the following: - the number of cards distributed to women were (1191589) exceeding the ones distributed to males. The recorded females' ratio was 51.3% where the males' ratio was 48.7%. The number of voting boxes assigned to women was (2081) while the number assigned to men was (2023). The average votes at the election zones where women candidates participated was 36116 against 16667 votes in the ones with no women candidates. The women votes ratio was 30% of the total votes ratio which was 58.5%. The women didn’t gain any seat in this parliamentary elections because of the lack of women’s support. They attained only 4% of the total votes. An other failure reason was: the social restrictions (habits, tradition , and tribalism). - The economic factor played an important role in this failure where the economical decision is in the hands of men even if the woman owns the money.

Conventionalized Multiword Expressions: “It’s All Greek to Me” or “a Piece of Cake” for English Second Language Learners

en
Authors: Elham Ammari
Keywords: Communication, avoidance, difficulty, exposure, first/second language, transfer, interference, incongruence, proficiency, similarity, difference, structure, metaphor, invariance
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 79 - 96

Abstract

This research paper explores the difficulties that pose some serious problems to English second language learners in the realm of idiomatic language. It discusses the nature of idioms in terms of origion, types and properties.It also suggests a number of strategies and techniques that are used in assimilating idioms into learners’ language.Identical idioms are easier to learn than unidentical ones. Depending on the structure of the first language, idioms are problematic if they do not exist in that particular language. The incongruence between first and second language also creates a problem. On the other hand, the structure of the second language constitutes a problem rather than the amount of incongruence between the two languages. A final result is that positive transfer should be encouraged while avoiding negative interference.

Women's Participation in the Parliamentary Elections in Jordan 2003: A Socio-Political Study in Greater Amman Area

en
Authors: Abdel Mahdi Alsoudi
Keywords: Women's Political Participation, Parliamentary Elections, Jordan, 2003
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 97 - 110

Abstract

Despite the fact that half the voters in the last four parliamentary elections in Jordan were women, and that there were no legislation or legal obstacles on their way to win the parliament's election, yet their achievement in this domain remained very poor. Elections' records show that no single woman won in those elections on the basis of free competition with men. However, one woman made it to the parliament in 1993 and six others succeeded in 2003 as a result of the quota system for women and racial minorities. Results show that women's behavior and voting priorities are influenced by their husbands' opinion and families' relationships and that their voting and participation behavior are influenced by their age, level of education and place of residence. Results show that the older and more educated women are more willing to vote, to run for parliament, and to participate in the elections' campaign and meetings than the younger women.

Abstract

The researcher investigates the role of body language which conveys and enhances meaning and which sometimes signals a different meaning from the uttered words. This paper comprises of four main parts: 1. Introduction which includes body language that is innate and acquired, universal and culture specific. 2. Investigation of this phenomenon in rhetoric heritage in "Al-Bayan" by "Al-Jaheth". 3. Investigation of this phenomenon in Arabic linguistic heritage represented through "Ibn Jinny". 4. Argument between describing the body movement and the style of the teller.

Abstract

This study aims to show the difference between joke and witticism as well as to identify the funny personality features which prevail in the Jordanian community. It also aims to show the spread and development of jokes and their connection to social criticism and how modern technology helped to spread jokes and criticize social environment without paying attention to social ethics. Jokes are really considered as effective cultural keys to discover the main dimensions of one people. They enable a person to study the construction and psychological aspects of peoples as well as their ideas and beliefs. Hence, I began collecting some current jokes, analysing them by using the descriptive method, which deals with the joint lines of a certain community. So, I had chosen a wide variety of oral and written jokes estimated to be about (250) as a sample which reflects the type of life in Jordan.

Abstract

This study aims at summarizing the subjects included in the content or the analysis of the Iraqi war. The purpose is to measure the Iraqi case vis-à-vis a just war. Therefore, it is necessary to follow up the gradual development and historical background of this phenomenon – just war –. It has been noticed that the Iraqi war emerged from religious, ethical, political and humanitarian origins. Although the international history did not eliminate war, the Iraqi war did not break out according to the principles of a just war. It has served American political goals. The international decision did not justify the war on Iraq, but even rejected it. Because the justifications introduced to the Security Council by the United States such as mass weapon destruction and the necessity to change the Iraqi regime were refused by the international community. Therefore, the Iraqi war was not justified by all political, moral and legal means. It was an aggressive behavior against an independent state and a member of the international community. Such behavior has dangerous results at the local, national and international levels, which reflect the abuse of power.

Dynamics (1) of Contraceptive Use in Jordan: Based on the 2002 Jordan Demographic and Health Survey

en
Authors: Issa Almasarweh
Keywords: contraceptive dynamics, contraceptive prevalence, contraceptive discontinuation and reasons, contraceptive switching, contraceptive failure.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 173 - 192

Abstract

This study is based on information collected in the 2002 Demographic and Health Survey for 2002 in Jordan. The raw data were obtained on CD and analyzed to achieve the study objective, that is, to measure and understand dynamics of contraceptive use and their reasons and differentials by a number of background variables. The dynamics included: contraceptive discontinuation rate by method, reason and destination after discontinuation, contraceptive switching behavior and contraceptive failure rates. The research findings showed that there has been an increase in Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) and a decline in contraceptive discontinuation rate in Jordan in the last decade. CPR increased from 40% in 1990 to 56% in 2002 and 12-month discontinuation rate dropped to 42% in 2002. The dominant modern method (IUD) is used more in urban areas and central region, and among older and educated mothers. On the contrary, traditional methods are more prevalent in rural areas, north and south region, and among younger and less educated mothers. When each method is examined alone, the highest discontinuation rates are found for vaginal methods (Diaphragm/Foam/Jelly), and the condom, followed by pill, injections, periodic abstinence and withdrawal. The lowest discontinuation rate was for IUD and Norplant. Discontinuation rates varied by background characteristics of respondents, such as place of residence, age and education. For users who discontinued use, the highest ratio was due to women’s desire to get pregnant followed by both method failure and side effects of method, then husband’s disapproval and health concerns. Around one third of women indicated reasons of discontinuation related to pregnancy (contraceptive failure and desire to get pregnant) meaning that both groups of women don’t need to switch to other methods. These women are mostly urban, from south and central regions, aged 15-29 and have higher education. About 11% of the women stated that they abandoned the use of contraceptives because they are fed up with the method although they need one. Another 10% switched to a modern method and around 5% changed their modern method to a traditional one. The 12-month crude failure rate for all methods is 12.5%. Crude failure rates for various methods greatly differed from one another. The IUD showed the lowest failure rate (1.4%). This is because user’s errors are seldom found in the IUD use. Due to users’ error, failure rates for the pill came next (13%). The highest crude failure rates were for the traditional methods (periodic abstinence 32%; withdrawal 20%), and the condom; (18%). Failure rates varied according to women’s residence, age and education. The main conclusion of the study is that Jordanian family planning programs should pay attention to couples who discontinue contraceptive use due to methods' failure and untreated side effects, especially to those who switch to traditional methods or abandon method use although they need to use one in order to avoid unintended pregnancies. Dynamic sociodemographic differentials should receive attention too.

Modern Arabic Poetry from Rhyme to Prose

en
Authors: Mohammad A. Al-Qudah
Keywords: Poetry, contemporary, concepts, modernity, text, code, ambiguity, future, prose poem, critic.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 193 - 212

Abstract

This paper tackles the concept of modern Arabic poetry after more than half a century, and stops at its beginnings, the problems that accompanied it, its attitudes and its status, passing through the prose poem, in addition to the ambiguities that accompanied the poetic accomplishment since a long time ago. Furthermore, the paper raises many questions about the poet’s commitment concerning the poetry, its taste and its role as a creative act with a remarkable presence and its effect in this age of speed, globalization, computerization and absolute freedom, in addition to the fall of tastes and pretreatment of poetry in favor of other creative arts. Also, it attempts to investigate the future horizons of poetry, and stops at some models representing the modern Arabic poetry.

Syntactic Distinction Between Structure and Value Significance

en
Authors: Abdul-Aziz M. Ali
Keywords: Structure, semantics, concomittance, transformation, accepted disconnection.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 213 - 224

Abstract

This study aims at investigating the structured efforts of grammarians, to confirm the fact that Arabic language did not ignore syntax. It presents this in two major frames: First, the direct distinction which represents the relationship that maintains the significance, the second is the indirect or extraordinary distinction, which represents the relationship that contains a hidden significance. Results of this study reveal that grammarians permitted this distinction in some cases and prevented it in other cases, based on rules of structured distinction and its relation to structured roots that allow this structured distinction to take place.

Description in Narrative Discourse and Its Technical Dimensions: "Ziad Qassim as a Model"

en
Authors: Nidal "Mohammed" Fathi Al-Shamali
Keywords: Discourse, Text, Narration, Description, Dialogue, Levels of Language, Show, Scene, Pause.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 225 - 232

Abstract

This study attempts to introduce an extensive critical perspective of description as an effective narrative discourse tool. Therefore, it revises certain aspects of description and presents new perspectives in this field. This study is based on the integrities of the text language by focusing on subtle details arising among the units of the multiple levels of the linguistic structure, endeavoring to apply theory to the narrative text, particularly the novels of Ziad Qassim.

Text Grammar and its Application on Paradigms in Arabic Grammar

en
Authors: Abd Al-Mahdi H. Al-Jarrah
Keywords: Arabic grammar, text, cohesion, context.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 233 - 245

Abstract

This study aims at investigating text grammar and showing its application on Arabic grammar. It introduces the concept of text grammar and its origin. Also, the study shows the aim of text grammar, the applicable factors, and the applicable trends of the text in the Arabic grammar which are: the interpretation of text cohesion based on the linguistic context and the interpretation of text cohesion based on the non-linguistic context. The study concludes that Arab grammarians are aware of the question of cohesion among the different language structures. They interpreted this cohesion according to the linguistic and non-linguistic contexts.