Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 33, Issue 1 Supplement 1

Abstract

The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between the right-brain/left-brain dominance and academic level, family standards of living, type of residence and speciality of students. The sample of this study consists of (301) sociology students from (JUST) in the year 2004/2005. The sample students were from six faculties at JUST. This study is meant to examine and measure dominance of the right-brain and left - brain hemisphere. The results of this study illustrated the dominance of the right-brain (48.2%) compared to (41.5%) dominance of the left-brain, whereas the parallel dominance is only (10.3%). The study concludes with recommendations to activate the functions of right-brain and make more studies on hemispheric dominance among different ages and cultures. It is also recommended that different types of measuring instruments of brain dominance are to be prepared to increase the cooperation among scientists, neurologists and researchers in the field.

The Stages of the Pronunciation of the Voiceless Stops in their Arabic Sonic Contexts

en
Authors: Moneer T. Shatnawi
Keywords: Explosive sounds, affricative sounds, phonetics contexts, vowel, semivowel
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 15 - 25

Abstract

This study tries to explore the nature of the phonetical stages for the voiceless stops: the stage of closure, the stage of pressure (obstruction) and the stage of explosion through their formation, connection together and completion from both the pronunciation side and the auditory one. Also, it explores the effects on some neighboring linguistic sounds in different contexts. The researcher adopted a method based on tracing the steps of the voiceless stop pronunciation in the context of linkage, as when a stop is followed by a consonant (whether or not it is of the same kind) or with diactrical mark or semi-diacritical one and finally on the context of the stoppage on the voiceless stop. In addition, the researcher shows the forms of pronouncing this stop in these contexts and their effect on the coming sounds. The researcher concludes that pronunciation of the voiceless stops in the Arabic language differs according to their contextual debate so far as their formation, stage-completion and connections are concerned. In addition, the researcher concludes that these stages have an impact on the following linguistic sounds in their sonic contexts.

American Literature and Harold Bloom's Theory of Literary Influence

en
Authors: Tawfiq I. Yousef
Keywords: American Literature, Harold Bloom’s Theory, Literary Influence.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 26 - 38

Abstract

This paper tries to apply Harold Bloom's theory of influence to Anglo-American literary relations. To achieve this, it has first outlined and then applied Bloom's six ratios which characterize literary relationships to the dialectic between American literature and English literature, between American and English writers. These ratios include: "Clinamen", which suggests a process of "swerving' from the precursor; "tessera" which intimates a reversionary movement of "completion" of the precursor; "kenosis", which indicates an "emptying" of the self in relation to the precursor; "daemonization", which implies the extraction, countering, and celebration of an "alien", though present, element in the precursor; "askesis", which denotes an effort of "self-purgation" aimed at attaining a sacred solitude against the precursor; and, finally "apophrades", which depicts an uncanny "return" of the precursor, for now the mature latecomer seems, strangely enough, the true author of the precursor's characteristic works.The paper also shows that all American writers have been affected by the English and European traditions and by the American tradition as well. Though the general tendency is to deny any such influence, some poets are ready to acknowledge their indebtedness. Along the way, some poets may choose not to join in this battle against the literary precursors and instead, look backward to established European and English models. Ironically, such writers have not been able to achieve great fame for, according to Bloom, a "strong" poet should embrace the task of sinning against the precursor whereas the "weak" or minor poet skirts the issue of his literary belatedness by accepting the influence of prior canonical masters within the sanctioned literary tradition.

Abstract

This study aims at examining Jordan’s political culture with specific reference to three dimensions. First, tribal dimension; second, national (Pan – Arab) dimension and finally Islamic dimension of Jordan’s political culture. More specifically, the study raised two fundamental questions: first, what is the relationship between these different dimensions and “Jordanian Identity”? Second, do these dimensions hinder the possibility of an emerging democratic society? The “central region” of Jordan was selected as a target group for this survey. Reasons for that selection were provided in the study. The study was conducted using the descriptive analytical approach as a method for examining the findings of the survey. This study concluded that there is a strong correlation between various dimensions of Jordan’s political culture and the issue of identity. However, there is no evidence to support the idea that Jordan’s political culture may prohibit the process of democratization.

The Political Relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and Israel (1953-1965)

en
Authors: Abdel – Majid Z. Al-Shunnaq
Keywords: Israel, Germany, Recognition, Economic and Military Relations
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 65 - 84

Abstract

This study discusses the relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the state of Israel from 1953-1965. In addition to the fact that Germany contributed to the rise of Israel by forcing jews to migrate to Palestine during the Nazi rule, it played an important role in building and strengthening the state of Israel. Also, Germany contributed economical financial aid to Israel, outside the frame of the agreement that was signed in September 10, 1952. Then, at the end of the fifties it began developing military and security relations with Israel that included arms deals which reached the Israelis through different channels, and were financially sponsored by Germany. In 1965, the bilateral relation reached the point of German's recognition of the state of Israel, and the beginning of diplomatic exchange between the two countries. This study attempts to answer the following questions: - Why did Israel politics concentrate at the beginning on the financial and economic aids, then on the military aids? - Why did Germany postpone the recognition of the state of Israel? - What are the motives of Germany for building economic and military relations with Israel, and why did Israel insist at the mid sixties on diplomatic exchange with Germany?

Affixes Whose Origins Rooted in the Phenomena of Nunation (Tanwin) and Memation (Tamyim) in Arabic: A Historical Comparative Study

en
Authors: Amenah S. Al-Zu’bi
Keywords: Comparative Linguistics, Philology, Nunation and Memation Suffixes
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 85 - 99

Abstract

This study aims at accounting for the affixes that Arab linguists have not tackled so far. It selects two phenomena, nunation (tanwīn) and memation (tamyīm) (i.e. to have [-m] as a suffix on a noun) which have provided Arabic lexicon with some linguistic patterns that hold certain meanings. For this purpose, the researcher was able to compile abundant data on these phenomena and conclude that memation (tamyīm) was used for an extended time in Arabic, but then it was abandoned in favor of nunation (tanwīn). What is remarkable is that Arabic considered the final [-m] on these nouns as if it were original.Due to the weakening of nunation, Arabic was forced to mark nunation twice on nouns; that is, the original [-n] was perceived as if it were superfluous. The whole study was undertaken within the framework of the historical-comparative approach.

Abstract

This research deals with the concept of hospitality in Pre-Islamic period as reflected in the poetry. Hence, it consists of the following topics: 1- The banquets and their facilities such as bowls and cooking pots. 2- Guidance of guests by emblazing the fire of hospitality and the barking of dogs. 3- Receiving the guests with a smile. 4- Singing the praises of being generous. 5- Eulogizing the one who receives the guests while composing satiric poems against the one who refuses to receive the guests. The conclusion of this research pointed out that poems of hospitality were truthful in portraying the reality of the Arab community. In fact, neither all the Arabs were noble and openhanded nor they were all stingy. It is also worth noting that the hospitality was a social necessity.

The Jordanian Daily Press (A Survey)

en
Authors: Mohammad H. Salo’us
Keywords:
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 119 - 131

Abstract

This research aims at reviewing the opinions of the academic faculty and administration staff at Yarmuk University and Irbid National University regarding the publications of the Jordanian daily press published in Arabic. The study revealed that (46.2%) of the respondents read (Al-Rai) daily newspaper as their favorite journal, while (33.7%) prefer reading (Al-Dustur) newspaper, and (20%) prefer (Al-Arab Alyoum ) daily newspaper. The findings of the study also show that (42.5%) of the respondents of both categories read their favorite newspaper every day. This means that the study sample may read other newspapers in addition to the Jordanian newspapers, to obtain news and information. The study showed that the income variable wouldn’t affect the readership of the newspaper in general. The findings revealed that the credibility of the newspaper and its review of recent political books of major importance are factors to attract the attention of the readers, followed by the Palestinian question, the important current affairs in the Middle East and the commercial ads. However, the essays and the analysis of the newspaper come in a priority of the respondents’ concern.

La Terminologie Arabe de la Téléphonie Mobile: Socioterminologie de la Créativité de l’imaginaire Populaire

en
Authors: Akram Odeh
Keywords: Mobile Phone, Socioterminology, Terminological Creation, Metaphor, Metonymy.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 132 - 146

Abstract

This paper deals with the socioterminological phenomena on popular terminological creation concerning the nicknames of mobile telephones in the Middle East. The mobile telephones’ models are numerous, various and recurrent, and there official names are always composed of four digitals often followed by a letter, which make it hardly retainable (hard to memorize); such as Nokia 7110, Samsung N 620. It is not only for linguistic reasons of transparency and adequation between the name and the named object, but also because of an ancestral tradition; as Arab popular imagination makes use of all its linguistic and extralinguistic resources that Arabic language and culture put in its service to nickname an object that is so close and personnal such as the mobile. Digitals are very abstract and intangible; the popular imagination prefers transparent and affective imaged names formed by the canals of metaphor and metonymy. Therefore, the names of politicians, stars, songs, places, buildings and animals are all mobilized and figuratively exploited by Arab consumers in countries like Damascus, Amman, Dubai, and Riyadh etc. to nickname this hi-tech object. Socio-cultural, psycholinguistic and commercial factors clarify the reasons of this process of socio-terminologization.

Health Effects of Child Labor in the Tourism Sector: A Field Study on Petra City

en
Authors: Salah H. Al-Louzi , Khaleel I. Halalat
Keywords: Child Labor, Health Effects, Tourism, Negative Risks, Injuries and Diseases.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 147 - 165

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to understand health consequences of children’s labor in tourism sector in Petra city in terms of two components; “negative risks” and “work injuries and diseases”. A purposive sample of 130 male children within the age category of 7 to less than 18 years was interviewed. Data were obtained by using three tools; a questionnaire, as well as an interview with the illiterate or less educated children and an observation of the phenomenon which represents the subject of the study. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Different statistical techniques were used including Chronbach Alpha to determine the internal consistency among items of the questionnaire; descriptive statistics, including frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations; qualitative statistics, including F test, t test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The level of significance was set at alpha = 0.05 or a level of significance of 95%. Regarding the component of negative risks, it was found that the respondent children had a positive concern toward their health status. However, exposure to health risks increases among respondents with younger ages, less education, working for long hours and attendants of transportation animals. In relation to the component of work injuries and diseases, it was found that such injuries and diseases were more common among respondents working as attendants of transportation animals, as well as those belonging to older ages and working for more days a week, and more working years. On the contrary, such injuries and diseases were less common among respondent children living with one or both parents, and working with their families without payment. Upon findings, some recommendations were presented.

American Literature and Harold Bloom's Theory of Literary Influence

en
Authors: Tawfiq I. Yousef
Keywords: American Literature, Harold Bloom’s Theory, Literary Influence.
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 166 - 178

Abstract

This paper tries to apply Harold Bloom's theory of influence to Anglo-American literary relations. To achieve this, it has first outlined and then applied Bloom's six ratios which characterize literary relationships to the dialectic between American literature and English literature, between American and English writers. These ratios include: "Clinamen", which suggests a process of "swerving' from the precursor; "tessera" which intimates a reversionary movement of "completion" of the precursor; "kenosis", which indicates an "emptying" of the self in relation to the precursor; "daemonization", which implies the extraction, countering, and celebration of an "alien", though present, element in the precursor; "askesis", which denotes an effort of "self-purgation" aimed at attaining a sacred solitude against the precursor; and, finally "apophrades", which depicts an uncanny "return" of the precursor, for now the mature latecomer seems, strangely enough, the true author of the precursor's characteristic works.The paper also shows that all American writers have been affected by the English and European traditions and by the American tradition as well. Though the general tendency is to deny any such influence, some poets are ready to acknowledge their indebtedness. Along the way, some poets may choose not to join in this battle against the literary precursors and instead, look backward to established European and English models. Ironically, such writers have not been able to achieve great fame for, according to Bloom, a "strong" poet should embrace the task of sinning against the precursor whereas the "weak" or minor poet skirts the issue of his literary belatedness by accepting the influence of prior canonical masters within the sanctioned literary tradition.

La Terminologie Arabe de la Téléphonie Mobile: Socioterminologie de la Créativité de l’imaginaire Populaire

en
Authors: Akram Odeh
Keywords: Mobile Phone, Socioterminology, Terminological Creation, Metaphor, Metonymy
Publication year: 2006
Pages: 179 - 193

Abstract

This paper deals with the socioterminological phenomena on popular terminological creation concerning the nicknames of mobile telephones in the Middle East. The mobile telephones’ models are numerous, various and recurrent, and there official names are always composed of four digitals often followed by a letter, which make it hardly retainable (hard to memorize); such as Nokia 7110, Samsung N 620. It is not only for linguistic reasons of transparency and adequation between the name and the named object, but also because of an ancestral tradition; as Arab popular imagination makes use of all its linguistic and extralinguistic resources that Arabic language and culture put in its service to nickname an object that is so close and personnal such as the mobile. Digitals are very abstract and intangible; the popular imagination prefers transparent and affective imaged names formed by the canals of metaphor and metonymy. Therefore, the names of politicians, stars, songs, places, buildings and animals are all mobilized and figuratively exploited by Arab consumers in countries like Damascus, Amman, Dubai, and Riyadh etc. to nickname this hi-tech object. Socio-cultural, psycholinguistic and commercial factors clarify the reasons of this process of socio-terminologization