Arson, al-Aqsa, 1969, British Documents, Arab, Muslims
Publication year: 2006
This article is the result of an examination of 154 of the British document, recently released on the burning down of al-Aqsa Mosque and its immediate effects, besides studying other relevant literature.
A temporary sweeping anger spread across the Muslim world and calls for Jihad to liberate al-Aqsa were heard everywhere. In addition, Muslim regimes held summits and coordinated, for a while, their political and media campaigns. The arson of al-Aqsa motivated the Muslims to establish the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), which, thus far, is the largest official political platform for cooperation among Muslim Countries. Furthermore, Jordan, in collaboration with Arab and Muslim countries, achieved some success in the United Nations (U.N), by persuading the Security Council to issue a more evenhanded resolution condemning Israel.
Attitudes, Arab students at American universities, Attitudes towards study, Attitudes towards future, Attitudes towards job - income
Publication year: 2006
This study aims at identifying the attitudes of Arab students at American universities towards study, job-income and future. It also examines the factors that influence these attitudes. By so doing, a 44-item tool has been prepared covering three areas distributed to the study sample which consisted of 227 male and female students.
The results show that: (i) the students’ attitudes towards study were positive; whereas their attitudes towards job-income and future were neutral, (ii) there is a statistically significant variable of income, enjoying American nationality, homeland and desire to go back home with regard to the students’ attitudes towards job-income, (iii) there is a statistically significant variable of specialization with regard to the students’ attitudes towards their study, and (iv) there is no statistically significant variable of the funding source with regard to the students’ attitudes towards study, job-income and future.
Political development, Civil society, Political reform
Publication year: 2006
This study sheds light on the subject of political development which has come to the attention of Jordan's political leadership during the past decade or so. It also, attempts to probe into the capability of the official Jordanian political insititutions such as the parliament, and the civil society associations such as the political parties and professional associations; and investigates obstacles facing these institutions; and to reflect the impacts of political culture on such development.
This study has also been carried out on the basis of the hypothesis which states that the role which the parliament and the civil societies play into political development is still quite weak and ineffective. In addition, traditional political culture and social heritage, and some legislations and laws still pose serious obstacles to the political development in Jordan.
To test the validity or invalidity of such hypothesis, the descriptive approach has been adopted.
The results of the study confirmed the hypothesis being proposed. They also showed that the process of democratic reform and political development since the early 1990s has not been up to the expectations, and that the objective environment needed for such a process has not been available.
The study ascribes the shortcomings of the democratic reform and political development process in Jordan to a number of obstacles, including weak civil society associations and parliament, the presence of some inconvenient laws, and the dominance of traditional culture in society.
In light of the results, the study provides a number of recommendations that may enhance the process of politivcal development, the most important of which are constitutional and legal reforms to strengthen the role of civil associations, especially political parties and professional associations, the limitation of the executive branch encrochement upon them; and the adoption of a civil and democratic political culture which insures an active role of such institutions and associations in the process of political development.
This study attempts to depict some social habits, wisdoms and traditions during the Abbasid era via studying the anecdotes (Makamat) of Badiea Al-Zaman Al-Hamathani (358-398 Hejri). These social habits include the habits of choosing friends and wives; means of entertainment, interest in searching for old treasures, and the importance of the outer appearance for man to achieve his social status.
Of importance among the social phenomena investigated is also the spread of poverty that led to some social practices such as beggary, mendacity and public baths.
The study also tries to investigate peoples’ habits and manners when entering these baths, and their use of cursing and calling names among others.
The researcher aims at studying the similar sayings in two books: MAJMA’ AL-AMTHAL by AL-MAYDANI and JORDANIAN FOLK SAYINGS, by Dr. Hani Al-Amad which are estimated to be (124) sayings and are similar in both pronounciation and meaning. To attain this purpose, it was necessary to read the sayings of AL-MAYDANI which were considered as basis for comparison, text assimilation, identification of similar significances and observing the different situations concerning language and syntactic structure. Thus, I studied the main reasons of similarity and considered the theme of space from which I denoted that every saying has a special place through its pronounciation and meaning. After then, I analysed the relation of a saying to the social situation. I also referred to the scope of sayings for I believe that every saying has a special scope or occasion formed by its words and general text. At last, An appendix can be obtained from the researcher, which includes sayings studied in both books in addition to the main theme of every saying.
The paper raises a number of questions related to the acquisition of a foreign language. The paper focus on the issue of the cultural aspects involved in the teaching and acquisition of the target language and raises the question whether it is possible to dissociate the language from its culture and whether the target language can be taught without taking into account the cultural, social and psychological traits of the learners. The paper comes out with the conclusion that curriculum designers have to take notice of the native culture of the foreign language learner in order to avoid an inevitable cultural clash and to resuscitate a positive cultural interaction. Such a positive interaction can significantly develop aptitudes for the foreign language acquisition. If the learner develops a negative attitude towards the target language, this may aggravate the difficulties he encounters in his attempt to learn the target language. The paper hence aims at highlighting the cultural component of the target language which manifests itself in all linguistic aspects including language structures, idiomatic and metaphorical expressions. To illustrate this aspect, we have conducted a practical study on a number of students in the French Department in King Saud University in order to show to what extent these students can assimilate idiomatic expression and proverbs which have a significant cultural importance. This is meant to indicate the students capacity to understand the cultural aspects of such linguistic structures and to point out the need for the language instruction to be careful in the selection of idioms and proverbs so as to avoid a cultural clash between the native language learner and the culture of the target language
The importance of this analytical study which deals with Hassan ben Thabet’s Al-Hamziyah lies in the approach followed . On one end of the spectrum, the views of some classical and contemporary critics are gathered, sorted, analyzed and commented on. On the other end, this study offers a new analysis that deals with the controversial points related to this poem .
The researcher starts with a classification of the different views concerning the era during which the poem was produced, whether during the Jaheliyah or the spread of Islam .
In the next step , three of the important studies dealing with this poem, from critical and analytical angles, are highlighted. These studies are by Zaky Mubarak, Abdul-Qader Al-Qet and Abdullah Attatawy, respectively.
The researcher offers his own new analysis of this poem as the last step before the conclusion that rounds up the main points in this study .
In this paper we attempt to expose the opinion of Al-Ghazali with respect to the question of the degeneration of the Sun, as opposed to Galen’s opinion. Galen believed that the Sun, being a heavenly body that is composed of the fifth element Ether, is not eligible to deterioration and degeneration. On the contrary, Al-Ghazali believed that the Sun may deteriorate refuting the objection raised by astronomers that no degrading of the Sun is seen throughout the past ages. Al-Ghazali correctly argues that the estimated degrading in the mass of the Sun is expected to be very small which makes it undeterminable by direct observations. Modern scientific astrophysical analysis supports Al-Ghazali's point of view.
Through the analysis of his conception of tashbīh (simile) and its different aspects, the present article argues that the interchangeability of two things explicitly likened to each other is the notion which underlies al-Rummānī's chapter on tashbīh. It also concludes that - apart from his insistence that the word which indicates similarity be explicitly stated - this notion and such ideas derived from it are, although they appear otherwise, in line with the traditional literature on the figure. His ideas, which have failed to attract much attention in modern research, dominated (albeit not always accepted or properly understood) the rhetorical scene almost a century before being eclipsed by ‘Abd al-Qāhir's. The most prominent rhetoricians of that time were influenced by al-Rummānī, among them ‘Ali Ibn Khalaf who was his most adherent follower.
The nonlinguistic signs such as the printing forms, the black and white spaces, have altogether created a very important artistic phenomenon in modern poetry after poets have transformed receiving criteria of poetry from the aural (listening) level to the visual (seeing) level.
In addition, linguistic lexicon and the poetic intertextuality side by side form a linguistic structure and an essential source for recalling the missing text that open up to new and fresh words in the experience of poetry. So it became the responsibility of the critic to decode and figure out its connotations by asking new critical questions that agree with the modern literary methods of expression.
This paper comes as a practical response aiming at exploring the world of the poetic text together with its structural elements and dramatic interaction.
In this paper, we attempt to expose the opinion of Al-Bakillani with respect to the question whether the world can be created naturally without an external cause. This opinion is fundamental because it forms the basis of the Ash’arites' opinion on the subject of natural causality. For this reason, we studied the three main versions of the problem as presented by Al-Bakillani, and we analyzed his methodology of proof to refute the opinions of his opponents, exposing at the same time his implicit assumptions and the kalamic opinions that stand behind the arguments. Although Al-Bakillani did not deny the existence of a related cause (‘illa), he refused to consider that the cause acts by itself to produce the effect. One of the most important points exposed in this paper is the denial of Al-Bakillani, and other Ash’arites, of the four basic elements, i.e., fire, earth, air and water. It is also shown that Al-Bakillani refused to consider the heavenly bodies as having any specialty or being privileged in composition or material status. On the contrary, he considered all heavenly bodies including the Sun and the Moon being made of the same substance that makes the Earth. Al-Bakillani also strongly criticized Astrology and denied any kind of a metaphysical effect of the Stars and the Planets on mankind or processes taking place on Earth. We analyze the content of all these ideas and expose their relations to the arguments used by Al-Ghazali to refute philosophers in his book “tahafut alfalasifa”, and show, contrary to the dominant opinion among some researchers, that the Mutakallimun actually did not deny causal relations, but rather they denied the natural deterministic causality; an important point that was overlooked by Wolfson and others.
Linguists have dwelled on investigating the “Taa” in Yaa abati (of father) and Yaa >umati (of mother). They had different perspectives and opinions. Some ascribed this to Saybawyh that it is a substitute for the first person possessive adjective yaa. Others said that it's a replacement of the Yaa. Some others said its origin is the stopping Haa. Some other linguists ascribe that to the phenomena of Tarkheem and elegy.
The researcher has intended to discuss linguists' opinions –especially Saybawyh– showing their positive and negative remarks through three dimensions:
Complexity (ambiguity) of this Taa, linguists opinions, and its main specialization in vocative category only.
The researcher concluded that this is the feminine Taa due to some indications of the comparative linguistic lesson: it is not only ignored in the pronunciation of the two structures because of the ellipse, but there are creation constructive considerations in the structure of the dual and some other indicative values as well as some other stylistic meanings in vocative category in particular which forbid the annexation of Taa due to the aforementioned factors. The researcher, also, disagreed with those who think that it’s a substitute for first person possessive adjective Yaa or that it’s a substitute of the stopping “Haa” or either that which is due to the phenomena of Tarkeem or elegy.
The researcher showed that what has been ascribed to Saybawyh in this regard was not accurate. In his theory, it is a replacement of the Yaa. Rather, it’s the feminine Taa for the function of replacement.
Nonetheless, taking for granted that it is mainly based on replacement doesn’t suffice in showing the fact of this Taa and explain its existence in these two particular abovementioned words only, not any others, and only in vocative category.
Throughout her life, a woman believed firmly that she is inferior than man in equality and rights. This belief obliged her to feel that there is a difference between the nature of her biological life and the attitude of society to her. This difference and social problems were reflected on her folk works of literature which attained guarding and support by society. As a matter of fact, this research aims at showing the woman's fashion in folk sayings as being experiments in the past and present. These sayings showed courage in raising the woman's issues and gave them a push to infinity.
On the other hand, social situations were really considered through words' indications as well as through the method and its traits which are considered necessary to understand the scope of a female saying. The language of sayings and their context seemed to be rough and severe. They might be designed to create misunderstanding towards women. This research revealed that woman's image is clearer than that of man because sayings invaded her world and life without permission and finally deformed her originality. Nevertheless, sayings don't really reflect perfect truth.
Ali Kuşçu, Ottoman Empire, Sultan Mohammad al-Fatih, ‘Ilm al-Bayân, Metaphor
Publication year: 2006
This study focuses on the life and works of the Turkish scholar Ali Kuşçu with a critical edition of his Risâla fi al-Isti‘âra. Ali Kuşçu lived in the middle Asia, but spent his last years in İstanbul during the reign of Sultan Mohammad al-Fatih. In this period, he contributed to the preparations of some programmes of the classical Ottoman schools. He wrote in different fields in Arabic. He had a great fame and is still famous in our present time. He wrote mostly on Mathematics and Astronomy. However, there are also some religious works which are out of reach in the present time.
Risâla fi al-Isti‘âra, which is the main point of this study, explores metaphor in particular and metonymy, connotation and denotation in a more general sense under the light of a didactic approach. Risâla fi al-Isti‘âra and all his works were being taught as course books in the classical Ottoman schools.
Risâla fi al-Isti‘âra is a critical edition of the three versions in Süleymaniye Library in İstanbul in order to be published. There are forty versions of it all over the world. Kuşçu’s style in Risâla fi al-Isti‘âra is not complex but very clear, easy and to the point.
This research investigates deliberately a viewpoint which was ascribed to Abu Sa’id al-Sirafi (d.368 A.H/ 978 A.D) by some grammarians, which stated, in addition to the typical objects in Arabic grammar, namely direct, adverbial, unrestricted, concomitant, and causative, a sixth type called Al-maf’ul Minhu. Al-Sirafi observed it when referring to exemplification of accusative case of the word “qawmahu” within the Koranic Verse ("واختار موسى قومَه سبعين رجلا" Al-A'raf: verse155). The research, following an exhaustive discussion drawn upon a historical method devices and foundations of objectivity in Arabic regimen through illustrative examples and reviewing the Arab grammarians conditions, refuted the consideration of Al-maf’ul Minhu as a grammatical category presenting a sixth object. Otherwise it directed and undertook syntactically the proper aspect of the word “qawmahu” that goes along with the foundations of declension in Arabic.