This study reports on how intelligible Arabic esophageal speech is. Recording of three Arabic esophageal speakers reading a (100 - word) passage in standard Arabic was obtained. The recordings were reviewed by two groups of judges. 10 judges were exposed to esophageal speech and 10 were not (college students). Both groups wrote the words they heard in standard Arabic and rated the intelligibility on a five-point scale. Results revealed a significant difference in the correctly identified words in the reading passage between the two groups. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in intelligibility rating. Also, a strong negative correlation was found between intelligibility rating for the reading passage and the correctly identified words. Additionally, the exposed groups were asked to phonetically transcribe a list of words representing all standard Arabic sounds in order to evaluate the mechanically induced “phonological” and phonetic influences on speech intelligibility. It was concluded that compensatory articulation therapy is a necessary step in improving Arabic esophageal speech intelligibility.
The idea of Arab unity has been a central motive in Arab politics since the declination of the Ottoman Empire. This idea emerged in the late 19th century, initially aiming at unifying the Arab countries in one single state. In the Arab hearts and minds, Arab unity is strongly felt, no matter if Arabs live in poor or rich countries, the basis of this unification is the common Arab heritage, language, culture, religion and history. The declared objectives of Arab unity were and still are to create unity, economic and social development, eventually enabling the Arabs to live in a good condition and to resist imperialism’s new ways and means and to achieve national security.
Whereas for the Arabs, in my point of view the reason that stands behind the Arab’s failure in unifying themselves in one single state till today is that because they have the spirit of nationalism but merely with no good plans or strategies on how to gain their unity.
The Arab World was and still is divided into twenty two countries. This diversity has political, economic and social implications on the Arab World, being part of the Third World countries, subject to those likely impacts. The objective of this paper is to examine the most important political, economical and social implications of diversity on the Arab countries, and to suggest appropriate policies that can be applied to reduce the negative impacts, and maximize the positive ones, on those countries.
The present article aims at delineating one of the main forms of traditional Arabic songs, known as “Aghani Al–Taraweed”. It tackles this issue by studying and analyzing the origin and the different meanings of this kind of traditional folk songs, the sub-forms of “Aghani Al–Taraweed” as they are: “Aghani Al–Taraweed” of the bride, “Aghani Al–Taraweed” of the bridegroom and “Aghani Al–Taraweed” of the circumcision ritual, in addition of most important models for each sub-form. The article also discusses the most important elements of“Aghani Al–Taraweed” such as:
- The word, its contents, its poetical characteristics, and its prosody.
- The melody, musical scales, pitches and the relationship between the melodic construction and poetical word and its meanings.
- Rhythm, spontaneousness, simplicity and the most important time signatures and impulses.
- Performance, its methodology and its reliability on exchanging singing between two groups.
The article also exposes some modern Jordanian performances applied in singing “Aghani Al–Taraweed”, such as (“Aghani Al–Taraweed” of joyfulness) by the Jordanian singer Salwa, and (Sabbal Oyouno) by the Jordanian composer Prof. Dr. Abdulhamid Hamam.
The researcher supported his article with several different models of poetry as well as melodic scours submitted to “Aghani Al–Taraweed”, which helped him in extracting the research results, ending with explaining the most important vocal forms, supported with the most important bibliography.
The study aimed at examining the gender roles which the youth develop within the Jordanian family. This is achieved by: Identifying the rate of participation of males and females in family activities and decision-making, identifying as to whether males and females discuss youth issues with their parents and exploring the effects of the family’s demographic and socio-economic attributes on gender roles formed in males and females within the family.
The study group included all male and female students enrolled in the eighth, ninth and tenth grades in public schools in the city of Tafilah. A stratified random sample was drawn, representing 50% of the study group, which consisted of 837 students (413 girls and 424 boys).
The descriptive method and the SPSS package were used to obtain descriptive statistics of the socio-economic and demographic characteristics; such as frequency distribution, the median and mean calculation, the Chi-square, the analysis of variance (ANOVA), Duncan’s analysis method, in addition to a qualitative analysis of the questionnaire. The study resulted in the following findings:
Males make little contribution to the housework; there are no gender differences between males and females in: housework responsibility, household expenditure and caring for children; while there are gender differences in making the final decisions in the family and in participating in the family decision-making.
The results also show that there are no gender differences between males and females in revealing their secrets, performing religious rituals, solving problems with friends, continuing their higher education, the qualities of courage, boldness and self-reliance; while there are gender differences in discussing puberty, obtaining information on puberty, reinforcing some qualities, discussing youth issues and visiting friends.
The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's test for dimensional comparisons show that the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the family like the status of mother and father, mother and father's work, mother and father's age, mother and father's education, the family's monthly income and the number of the family members; all have an effect on the following: father’s allowing females to visit friends, mother’s and father’s encouraging males and females to pursue university education and mother’s and father’s helping males and females to solve their problems with their friends.
This study aims at dealing with names of colours in ancient Arabic, especially in Pre-Islamic poetry as well as Islamic poetry. Also, it aims at observing the metaphorical and mytonymical meanings which we can find in the context of colour use. In English we can hear many examples of such metaphorical uses; such as, black market, black idea, blue day, black moon, green old age, green hand… and so on.
This kind of study is very few in Arabic, because Arab authors are always interested in the lexical meaning only. So, I think, this research gives us the newest conclusion in Arabic Semantics.
The alternation of authority in the world began to be a central case in the international political thought, be it on the level of the legitimacy, political regimes, their stability or their reconciliation with the international patterns.
Accordingly, a lot of questions and hypotheses had been raised, when the Arab World began to move within a set of new ideas and beliefs coming from outside, which are not suitable to its inherited conceptions.
This humble study tries to be a small hand in the huge amount of research papers that were prepared and published in the Arab World, dealing with the fields of political development, political culture and political participation in the range of constitutional approach to the alternation of authority.
This paper challenges the Realist school of thought as inadequate to account for the origin of Israeli security mindset. Notwithstanding the bifurcation view among decision makers with regard to the best approach to security, the prevailing opinion remains similar to that formed in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Evidently, the Israeli perspective on security and survival issues, like all states, is shaped through and filtered by a series of visions which determine its approach to foreign policy. Jewishness and Zionism remain the key lenses through which Israelis, on the whole, perceive external perils.
Integral to the understanding of Israeli security culture is the argument that in many cases threat is socially constructed. Hence, nothing less than tearing the state down and explaining its uniqueness will provide a full appreciation of Israel's approach to security. Constructivism, which argues that interests and identity are socially constructed rather than given, provides a rather significant complementary approach for a more thorough comprehension of Israeli's approach to security.
Authors: Abd Al-Majeed Al-Azzam , Mohammad K. Al-Shara’h
Political Participation, Civil Societies, Gender
Publication year: 2006
This study aims to explore the attitudes of a sample of members of civil societies in Jordan towards political participation, with respect to the actual presence of democratic indicators in the political scene in Jordan, major reasons behind political non-participation, and means to enhance political participation. It is, also, to investigate what effects demographic variables such as sex and party membership have on these attitudes.
To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to a strata sample selected from all the twelve governorates in the country composed of (14675) cases, of which only (3553) cases were considered for this study since their respondents were members in civil societies.
Appropriate statistical analyses showed positive correlation between the above mentioned variables and respondents' attitudes towards political participation.
In general, the results revealed negative attitudes of respondents towards political participation, and their belief that the government of Jordan is not serious about countering corruption and repotism. It is also found that in spite of government attempts towards democratic reforms, people are still unwilling to participate in political activities due to many reasons, the most important of which are: fear from measures used by security forces, the concentration of political activities in the capital, the weak application of measures of equal opportunities, and the weak transparency of the transfer of power.
In the light of its findings, the study offers a number of recommendations which might enhance political participation, the most important of which are: improving institutionalism, and the application of measures of equal opportunities in political and administrative recruitments. In addition, it is very important that the government assures the transparency of transfer of power, and establishes public relation programs capable of diminishing people’s fear of measures used by security forces .
This study aims to examine the Japanese policy towards the Middle East in general, and the Arab region in specific since 1973 until 2004. During this period, Japan has tried to practise some kind of balance in its relations with the United States, which support Israel on one side; and with the Arabs on the other side. Also, add to this that Arabs attempt to add Japan to their strength politically and economically after Japan had occupied an advanced position in the international economic system, in addition to the efforts to exploit this position since the seventies of the past century to practise a political role on two levels: regionally and internationally.
The study shows that Japan started its concern with Arabs as oil producing states, some raw materials, and as a market for its products; therefore, the core of its relation with them was completely economic before 1973. Before that date, the geographical dimension was the main obstacle between the two sides. But after the petroleum shock of 1973, and as a result of the balance of powers and the western policies, especially the American policies after the World War Two; the Japanese policy became tied with the strategic relation of the United States to a great limit (especially its policy in the Cold War), the Iraqi-Iranian war, and passing by the second Gulf War, the 11th September attacks on the United States, and the third Gulf War, when Japanese policy towards the Arab-Israeli conflict with its all dimensions and the Iraqi question became the same as the American strategy towards that dispute, in spite of few exceptions. Then, Japanese policy tried to compromise between two contradictions; first, to keep good relations with the Arab World in order to keep the Arab oil flowing since it depends on it by nearly 80%. Second, to keep its strategic alliance with the United States which was established in 1945. Finally, this study depends on a descriptive analytical methodology for the Japanese main policies towards the Middle East.
This research is considered a qualitative and quantitative supplement to the diwan of Arkalah Al- Kalbi, the Ayyubid poet (486-567 H). This diwan was edited by Ahmad Al-Jundi and was published by the Arabic Language Institute in Damascus in 1970/1390 H.
This contribution is represented in introducing a second reading of many of Al- Kalbi’s poems and adding a new big group of poems and qit’a (fragments) to his printed diwan. Besides, it adds some new verses to his poems depending on a manuscript unseen by his former editor. On the other hand, this research aims at revealing some of the shortcomings of editing which might be committed by some editors of works of heritage. That is because of relying on one version of the edited work’s manuscript, though there is one or more versions.
Nowadays current entertainment culture has played a great role in defining the features of music in Arab societies. This entertainment culture has had a negative effect on the quality of Arabic music and singing through the emergence of a new form of music that conforms with this rapid age of globalization, a matter that caused rhythm to be the dominant element in the Arabic song. On the other hand, this entertainment culture has had also a very positive effect on the Arabic song through the rapid distribution of the musical product both locally and regionally, the extensive promotion through various information media, which in itself is a result of globalization and also through distinctive musical entertainment festivals. This research emphasizes the economic role that music plays in the entertainment industry, which is a scientific industry and a process step in the economy. Music also plays a distinctive role in the developed and growing countries, and it gives a great profit to the owners of companies, singers, producers and some of the art dealers who are trading with an empty spiritual art at the expense of the consideration of nobility, identity and cultural patriotism.
The research dealt with the concept of poetry from Nizar Qabbani’s persperctive. It became clear that he was not a specialized critic or an academic researcher, he was only a poet above all. He wanted to make his poetic experience clear. He claimed that poetry should have a practical and beneficial function and that poetic experience should be presented in a form that materializes reality. He also called for using the colloquial language in poetry to give it deeper implications, being influenced by the English poetry.
Qabbani, being a compromising mediator in tackling heritage, neither accepted nor rejected it fully. To him, a poem, in its formation is neither an image nor a craftsmanship only, but a mixture of the two.
Qabbani refused obscurity in poetry. He was never moderate in revolting against the poetry’s classical form, considering the “prose poem” as the sweetest rose of poetry. Qabbani wrote more than 100 love letters following this approach; a viewpoint with which I don’t agree because prose is just prose and not poetry.
Idioms, understanding, linguistic form, percentage of correct answers, calque, negative transfer, explaining, extension, student, acquire, teach.
Publication year: 2006
The acquisition of idioms in a foreign language is generally left to coincidence. As priority is given to syntax, teaching of lexicology does not go beyond basic vocabulary. Thus, students’ weakness appears when they have to translate a text rich in idioms or a literary one:
Their mother language and negative transfer reflect their shaky knowledge and inability to deal with this kind of structures.
This study aims to find out to what extent French idioms are mastered by the students enrolled in the third and fourth years of the B.A. program in the French language and literature at the University of Jordan. For this purpose, a 30 item test (10 identical, 10 similar and 10 different) was developed by the researcher; they were used in sentences illustrating their meanings and uses. Learners were later asked to give the Arabic equivalents of the French idioms. The study subjects consisted of 30 students from the third and the fourth years having at least finished one course in translation, i.e. French into Arabic in addition to courses in oral skills, writing and French linguistics. The responses were analyzed and percentages of correct answers were calculated in order to find out whether there is a relation between the type of the idiom and the students’ competence. In the light of this analysis, recommendations were made in order to help teachers of French as a foreign language with some insights.
“Granada Trilogy” by Radhwa Ashour, current issues, Granada Trilogy and the novel, Granada Trilogy and the History, the novel and the history, Symbols, masks, realty, dream, new international system, Granada, migration, hope, keys, Arab confrontation with
Publication year: 2006
This research, throughout the internal text of “Granada Trilogy” by Radhwa Ashour, tries to uncover one of the successful trials that employ history to talk about current issues and bring them up to date away from historical narration. The foresaid novel highlights the last era of the Arab Rule in Granada. Throughout the narration, the novelist talks about the current Arab trial in confrontation with other parties throughout artistic means such as symbols, masks, scenes, duets, realty, dream, new world, new international system, Gushtals, Zionists, Granada, Jerusalem, migration, hope, keys, boxes, naked and veil, and lastly the comparison.
This novel, although it depends on history, is at the same time a real novel that bears the concerns and sorrows of the real life and expresses its hopes and ambitions. It further looks forward to changing it to a better world of liberty and independence.