Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 35, Issue 1 Supplement 1

A Rhodian Stamped Amphora Handle from the Site of Barsinia (North-western Jordan)

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Authors: Nabil Bader , Lamia El-Khouri
Keywords: Amphora Stamp, Barsinia in North-West Jordan, Rhodian, Second Century B.C.
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 1 - 6

Abstract

During excavations carried out by the Department of Archaeology at Yarmouk University in the site of Barsinia in North-West Jordan, a Rhodian stamped amphora handle was found. This square shaped stamp with three lines inscription composed in Greek language constitutes the first Hellenistic evidence in the site. The text contains the name of an eponym and a Rhodian month-name. In the light of similar objects known in the adjacent areas, it was possible to roughly date the stamp to the second century B.C.

The Levels and Uses of Science in the Novels of the Writer Patrick Deville during the Years (1987-1995)

en
Authors: Isabelle B. Rabadi , Waël Rabadi
Keywords: Modern French Novel, Questioning about Scientific Resources that are Usable in the Field of Literature, How to Live and How to Work, Encyclopedic Ambitions, Comedy, The Century’s Ideology.
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 7 - 20

Abstract

A huge traveller infatuated with cinema world, and constantly acquainted with what is going in this area filling the position of a literature manager for the house of foreigners and translators in the city of Saint-Nazaire. The writer Patrick Deville was born in 1957 and since nearly twenty years, he wrote a huge group of rare writings and they consist of seven novels and group of short stories. His novels are considered temptations to prepare the modern novel. Our analysis to his scripts, with lies on kwonwing the levels and uses of science and on revealing its suitability in accordance to its throwing of subjects such as knowledge, scientific knowledge and the knowledge of how to live.

Abstract

This research endeavors to uncover the causes behind the water well being holy in the imagination of Al-Jahelia (pre-Islamic era). Such a stature did not stem from being the only source of water for Arabs and their survival, but rather from its ties to death, soul and grave, and its communication with the grave verbally and non-verbally (visionally). The well was perceived as the gate to the world beneath, to death, and to the origin of the genesis, which existed from water, and from which human beings will be recreated.

Pathos in Nezar’s Qabany Poetry: A Stylistic Study

en
Authors: Maha M. Autoom , Tahani A. Shaker
Keywords: Style, Paradox, Bounce, Symbol, Attribute, Dualities.
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 39 - 51

Abstract

This research views a number of "Nezar Qabany" poems specialized in the subject of pathos, This subject which no pundit in general mentioned before. While there where a lot of studies which talked about not only Nezar Qabany's poems, but it considered to study the art of his pathos and criticize it. This study did take the stylistic field as an entrance to introduce the reading of these poems and analyze them, sorting the stylistic and art properties and the language that superior the pathos poetry by Nazar Qabany, and the oneness from all his other poetry. These properties which customized the study by methodologies of discussing and analyzing it, is a technical art and a technique represented in: the paradox, and the bounce, and the attribute, in addition to the intellectual and literalism techniques like: the place / the human, and the dualities. The study came out with a number of results about these properties that where detailed in the text and in the conclusion.

Evaluation, Adjustment, and Smoothing of Jordan 2004 Population and Housing Census Data and Projecting Population up to 2025

en
Authors: Issa S. Almasarweh
Keywords: Data Evaluation, Data Adjustment and Smoothing, Population Projections.
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 52 - 67

Abstract

This study carried out an evaluation of Jordan 2004 Population and Housing Census data utilizing the raw data and appropriate techniques used by international and research community worldwide. To apply these techniques, the researcher employed a number of models and programs imbedded into two software, the Population Analysis System (PAS) and Demographic Projection Model (DemProj). The results showed a relatively high quality of data and improvement in data quality especially among males compared with the quality of data for the two previous censuses of 1979 and 1994. The study also carried out the necessary corrections, adjustment and smoothing of the original data and concluded by running a series of population projections for the future period of 2006-2025 using the adjusted data that is free from coverage and content errors.

Records of Sama School as a Historical Recourse (1918-1946)

en
Authors: Hind Abu-Sha’r
Keywords: Sama School, Irbid Directorate, Records.
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 68 - 86

Abstract

This study relies on a local source that has not been utilized. The source comprises the records of the Sama School, Irbid Directorate, at the late Ottoman and Early National eras (1918-1919). The study aims at uncovering the social and economic status and the social interaction during the Eastern Jordan Emirate epoch, by means of investigating the school records and analyzing the data it contains statistically, thereby utilizing statistics as a method of history study. It turns out that these are the oldest records of schools in Jordan and that they represent an essentially major source that should be consulted in history studies, hence, asserting the significance of intermarriage between sources and of statistical analysis for providing an in-depth study of the beginnings the modern state in Jordan. The study stresses also the role Sama School played in disseminating education in Sama village and its outskirts, as it provided education to nearby villages. Sama School also distinguished itself through its successful farm-garden, which represented the educational pattern at the early stages of the Emirate, whereby students were directed towards agricultural education and its practical application in the school farm-garden.

Abstract

This study investigates the political and administrative activites of Karamiah in the Islamic Eastern Areas (i.e Khurasan and adjacent areas). Also it investigates the works done by the head of Karamiah (Mohamed Bin Karam) and his followers to spread their principles, until they were defeated by Ghaznawis after revealing the Karamiah secretsand ambitions to establish a religious authority that opposes their religious principles.

Caffeine Content in Turkish Coffee: A Question of Concern in Sport Community

en
Authors: Rana S. Afifi , Waleed A. Rahahleh , Kamal A. Hadidi
Keywords: Turkish coffee, Doping, Sport, Cut-off, Jordan
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 99 - 107

Abstract

Caffeine (trimethylxanthine) is an alkaloid present in many beverages and food sources. It is widely consumed and it is known for its stimulating properties and potential performance-enhancing effects. World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has placed caffeine on the 2006 monitoring program for stimulants in-competition only substance if its presence in the urine exceeding 12.0 µg/ml. Turkish coffee is the most commonly used type of coffee in the Middle-East region. However, athletes who are Turkish coffee consumers may not easily appreciate how much caffeine they can ingest before being accused of breaching the new WADA regulation of caffeine monitoring program for stimulants in-competition. Such problem could be avoided by establishing caffeine content in each cup of Turkish coffee, based on the understanding of the cultural practice in drinking and preparing Turkish coffee, and estimating the dose of caffeine present in each cup of Turkish coffee. Twenty-four volunteers participated in the study as group A and B and consumed Turkish coffee cups (40ml each) with caffeine mean dose of 8.56 (4 cups) and 12.84 (6 cups) mg/kg respectively over a two-hour interval. Volunteers of Group A who had 4 cups showed urinary maximum caffeine concentration of 8.86±2.36 µg/ml three hours post ingestion. However, Group B who consumed 6 cups of coffee under the same experiment conditions showed a maximum urinary concentration of 12.36±2.02 µg/ml, such caffeine concentration is above the permitted level of 12.0 µg/ml. In Conclusion, athletes who are Turkish coffee drinkers are advised to lower their intake of Turkish caffeine to less than two cup of regular coffee during or before sport competition especially if the athlete ingests soft or hot drinks containing caffeine or taking permitted drugs containing caffeine. The small volume of Turkish coffee cup of 40ml could be misleading to athletes, and a cross over with the new WADA regulations of caffeine misuse will be reported if the athlete consumed 6 regular cups of Turkish coffee only.

Sex-Related Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analysis of TIMSS

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Authors: Hamzah M. Doudeen , Hanan A. Annabi
Keywords: Differential Item Functioning, Mantel-Haenszel Procedure, Mathematics Gender-Related Differences, TIMSS
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 108 - 116

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze items that exhibited sex-related Differential Item Functioning (DIF) from the mathematics tests of TIMSS 1999 using the Jordanian data. The analysis included determining the prevalence and the content of the DIF items for each sex. Data used were the responses of 5299 eighth grade students (2470 females and 2829 males) to a total of 124 multiple-choice math items. Mantel-Haenszel (MH) DIF procedure was applied on the eight test booklets. Results showed that, on average, more than 20% of the items on each test booklet exhibited sex-related DIF, and the DIF items were evenly distributed between males and females. Math content of DIF items was analyzed and the content preferred by each sex was determined. Implications of the results and recommendations were discussed.

The Expected and Actual Role as Perceived by Physical Education Teachers in Jordan (A Comparative Study)

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Authors: Abdulsalam Al-Nadaf
Keywords: Physical Education Teacher, Expected Role, Actual Role
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 117 - 126

Abstract

This study aimed at identifying the actual and expected role of the physical education teacher at the province of Alkarak schools in Jordan. Moreover, it aimed at determining the effect of gender, qualification and experience on identifying the expected role, actual role and differences between the two roles of the physical education teacher. The number of participants in this study was 87 teachers (37 females and 50 males) from Alkarak province. A two dimensional instrument containing 31 items, distributed into five dimensions (professional responsibilities, students welfare responsibilities, teaching responsibilities, administrative responsibilities and local community responsibilities), was designed to achieve the purposes of this study. The results of the study indicated that physical education teachers practiced their roles in a different way than what they expected. Moreover, teachers from different genders, with different qualifications and different experiences were found also to practice their role significantly in a different way than what they perceived, except for physical education teachers with intermediate college degree who were found to practice their roles the same way as they expected them in four dimensions (students welfare responsibilities, teaching responsibilities, administrative responsibilities and local community responsibilities). In conclusion, the findings of this study emphasized the necessity of investigating the causes of the differences between the actual role and expected one. Similar studies in this line of research are required from the standpoint of students, supervisors and specialists in physical education in order to get a broader view about the role of physical education teacher.

Investing Free Time for The Hashemite University Students

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Authors: Abdulbaset M. Abdulhafeth , Aman S. Khasawneh , Ibrahim A. Bani Salameh
Keywords: Free Time, Hashemite University
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 127 - 148

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify the most common activities among the Hashemite university students during their free time either inside university or outside it or during holidays, in general, and commensurate with gender and type of faculty. A sample of (330) male and female students from different majors of the university ware used. A questionnaire of three dimensions consisting of (111) items was used. The findings indicated the most common activities were conduct in the free time ''sitting with friends inside the university'' and "sitting with family" either outside university or in holidays. Results showed differences in the most common activities either inside university or in holidays commensurate with gender and inside and outside university commensurate with type of faculty. Where as no differences were exist between male and females inside university of between scientific and humanity majors in holidays.

The Impact of Pragmatism on Arab Education... Its Aspects, Sources and Consequences

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Authors: Yazid I. Soraty
Keywords: Pragmatism, Philosophy of Education, Arab Education, Impact, Arab World
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 149 - 162

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of Pragmatism on Arab education. Because of the theoretical nature of this study, the descriptive, analytic and critical method was used.The results of the study showed that the philosophical and educational principles of Pragmatism had impact of Arab education in the following areas: philosophy of education, methods of instruction, translation, curricula, university educational textbooks and educational research. Also, the results showed that the two main sources of the impact of Pragmatism on Arab education were the efforts of Ismaeel Qabbani, sending students on educational scholarships to the United States and the American cultural impact on the Arab world. Finally, the results revealed that the impact of Pragmatism on Arab education had positive and negative consequences such as: weakening Arab education systems, marginalizing the role of religion in the educational process, and contributing to separation between Arab society and its educational philosophy.

Designing a Learning Package and Studying Its Effect on Achievement and on Attitudes Improvement toward Mathematics of Basic Level Students in Jordan

en
Authors: Ahmad A. Al-Keelani , Hala M. Al-Shawwa
Keywords: Instructional Technology, Teaching Mathematics, Attitudes Toward Mathematics, Mathematical Achievement
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 163 - 178

Abstract

The aim of the study was to design a learning package and to investigate the effect of using it on achievement and on attitudes improvement toward mathematics of basic level students in Jordan. The research questions were: 1) are there any differences between means scores of the experimental and the control groups on the mathematical achievement? 2) are there any differences between the attitudes toward mathematics of the experimental and the control groups? The sample of the study consisted of (72) 6th graders. Two sections were selected. One class of (33) students was assigned to be the experimental group and another class of (39) students was assigned to be the control group. The two sections were assigned randomly. The instruments were: 1) the learning package for the rational numbers and the dimensions shapes units, 2) the achievement test, and 3) the attitudes questionnaire toward mathematics. The findings of the study indicated that: there were significant differences between the immediate and the postponed achievement and the attitudes toward mathematics on behalf of the experimental group.

The Degree of Student Satisfaction with College Academic and Organizational Experiences and Its Relationship with Gender, Educational Level, Grade-Point Average (GPA), and Parent's Level of Education

en
Authors: Jihad M. Alaedein
Keywords: Student Satisfaction Inventory, Noel-Levitz Student Satisfaction Inventory, [SSI];,Psychometric Qualities of Student Satisfaction Inventory.
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 179 - 207

Abstract

This study explores academic and administrative satisfaction degrees among college students as measured by the Noel-Levitz Student Satisfaction Inventory (SSI). The randomized student sample which consisted of 470 students (328 females and 142 males) were selected from Hashemite University. The study established validity and reliability of the SSI. Student respondents rated all items on a 5-point Likert scale with respect to their expectation and satisfaction with student academic and administrative experience. The satisfaction data indicated that students were significantly more satisfied in areas of library, campus safety, academic counseling, quality of teaching, and college positive experience, and were significantly less satisfied in areas of meeting with administrators, provision of financial aid, registration, students’ week-end activities, and fees. Findings indicated that highest significant differences existed between importance and satisfaction (Performance Gap) means in the area of registration, fees, financial aid, and faculty fairness. In addition, there was a significant difference between high and moderate (GPA) students in the satisfaction levels in favor of the latter group. Limitations, implication for further studies, and counseling intervention were included.

The Ability Level of Students in Applying the Knowledge Aspect of Questioning Skill

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Authors: Gazi J. Khalifeh
Keywords: Knowledge Aspect, Practice-Teaching, Students, Questions Skill
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 208 - 218

Abstract

This study aimed at investigating the ability level of practice – teaching students in applying the knowledge aspect of questioning, and the effect of their academic specialty area in this ability. To achieve this objective, the researcher developed a (30) items achievement test, which includes probing questions, closed ended questions, open-ended questions, Bloom's taxonomy questions, and other questions related to the psychology and procedures of asking questions. He also insured the validity of the test through a group of judges, and calculated its reliability by using Kuder-Richardson (20) formula, and it was (0.80). To answer the study questions and to test its hypotheses, the researcher has chosen randomly (88) students whose their specialty area was classroom teacher. He used 2 Ways ANOVA, and "t" test. The results were as follows: 1. There was a statistical significant difference in the students ability of asking questions between the accepted educational level and their real level, in favor of their real level. 2. There was a statistical significant difference in the students ability of applying the knowledge aspect of asking questions between the two specialty areas of students (scientific, literary) in favor of the scientific stream. 3. There was no statistical significant difference in the students ability of applying the knowledge aspect of asking questions, due to the sex variable, and to the interaction between sex and specialty area variables. The study recommended that the asking questions ability of literary students should be diagnostic in order to upgrade their level.

Kuwait Intermediate Social Studies Teaches’ Knowledge and Performance of the Critical Thinking Skills as Received by Themselves

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Authors: Samia A. Al-Sinafi
Keywords: Critical Thinking Skills, Knowledge and Performance, Social Studies Intermediate Teachers, State of Kuwait
Publication year: 2008
Pages: 219 - 231

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of Kuwait intermediate social studies teachers’ knowledge and performance of the critical thinking as perceived by themselves. The proposed sample of the study consisted of (50) teachers; (23) males and (27) females. An observation checklist was developed by the researchers to be used as the toold of the study. Its validity and reliability were established. Means, standard deviations, ANOVA, and Pears Correlation Coefficient all were applied in analyzing the data. Results revealed a greatly low-level of knowledge (76%) as well as of performance (65%) of the critical thinking skills among the social studies teachers, these results were less than the educationally accepted standard (80%). It was also indicated that there exist statistically significant differences (=0.05) between the means of knowledge according to sex, experience and major, in favor of males, teachers; with more experience, and those whose major is social studies, respectively. Moreover, statistically significant differences (=0.05) were found between means of the teachers’ performance of those skills, due to sex and experience variables, in favor of males, and teachers with more experience, respectively. Further more, a strong correlation was found between the teachers’ knowledge of critical thinking skills and their performance of those skills. Finally, some suggestions concerning some areas related to curriculums were introduced, in the fields of text books and supervision, and furthere was recommended.