Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 36, Issue 1 Supplement 1

The Statues of Non Muslim’s during Khelafat Al-Dahir Li'izaz Deen Allah Al-Fatimi )411- 427A.H./ 1020- 1036 A.D)

en
Authors: Mohammad S. Al-Tarawneh , Sahar A. AL-Majali
Keywords: Al-Hakim Bi’amr Allah, Al-Dahir Li’izaz Deen Allah.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 1 - 10

Abstract

The aim of this e study is to identify covenants and non Muslims  and to shed light on the principles of their treatment. It shows how Islam includes them within its care and indulgence during its first decades. It also includes their conditions during Khelafat "Al-Hakim Bi'Amer Allah Al-Fatimi and how he imposed some rules which restricted their freedom, but he cancelled it later on.

Forms of Folk Intertexuality in Tawfiq Zayyad Poetry

en
Authors: Ibrahim N. Mousa
Keywords: Folk Intertexuality, Tawfiq Zayyad, Poetic Discourse.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 11 - 27

Abstract

Intertextuality is one of the artistic phenomena that have a great impact in the overall aesthetical construction of the contemporary poetic discourse, by which the past is discovered or read via the present in order to express the particularity and quirk of its creator in portraying the reality.

Jordanian and Palestinian Female Writers as Autobiography Writers

en
Authors: Osama Y. Shihab
Keywords: Jordanian and Palestinian Female Writers, Autobiography.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 28 - 46

Abstract

An autobiography is an account of the life of an outstanding personality. This research aims at highlighting the role of the female Jordanian and Palestinian writers in writing autobiographies. Four figures have arisen in this field، Kulthoum Oudeh, Anbarah Salam Al Khaledi, Fadwa Tuqan and Najmiah Hikmat. Some features of this art have appeared in a number of novels such as، A Pride Behind the River, by Salwa Al Bana, Home In t he Eyes by Hamida Na'na' and the Aloe Tree, by Imtithatl Hwaidi and some other writers. This research introduces the figures mentioned at the beginning. The language of those writers varied between the Journalism language as the case with Kulthoum Oudeh an d the moderate middle language (between the spoken and standard) as the case with Anbarah Salam Al Kahledi. The researcher points to the transparent, poetic and romantic language of the work of Najmiah Hikmat. This research concludes with some artistic features of this literature field which regrettably does not have a lot of research about.

The Articulation Disorders in Producing the Arabic /r/ Descriptive and Analytical Study

en
Authors: Ibtisam H. Jameel , Hana’a Nawwaf , Jehad Al-Arayfi
Keywords: Articulation Disorder, Normal /r/, Disordered /r/, Distortion, Substitution, Deletion.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 47 - 67

Abstract

This study is concerned with articulation disorders of the Arabic /r/ sound and it is presented in three sections: The first one is the concept of misarticulation in general which is depicted in both the classical and modern linguists' point of view. The second section focuses on the description (criteria) of the normally produced Arabic /r/. The last section tackles the misarticulated /r/ in terms of its various kinds and forms (patterns).

Lullaby between Tchairgofesky and Hend Bent Otbah Comparative Study in Poetic Content and its Effect

en
Authors: Eman “M.A” Khader Al-Kelani
Keywords: Lullaby, Oriented Literature, Poetic Content, Unconsciousness.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 68 - 84

Abstract

Ellipsis as tackled from a linear perspective has received much linguistic research concern. Subsequently, it has emerged as one of the basic themes in modern criticism studies, notably in stylistics. Ellipsis involves structural reduction for special semantic purposes. The speaker's deliberate diminution that may occur in letters, words or phrases is predictable by the hearer. Theoretically, the well-formedness of a sentence necessitates the presence of its full constituents, but in literary texts, there might be a deviation from the typical sentence patterns. This may provide deeper meanings that cannot be accomplished otherwise. Abdel Qaher Al-Jorjani, an ancient Arab grammarian, was probably the first to call attention to this issue in his renowned book "Dala'il al-I'jaz." Al-Sijlamasi, another ancient scholar, carried it further by recognizing its seventeen types, taxonomizing them, and giving terms for each and its ramifications as based on the word internal structure, and its both syntactic and semantic functions.

Voting Behavior among Arab Group and Permanent Member States at the Security Council and the UN General Assembly 1990-2007

en
Authors: Khaleel I. Hajaj , Sayel F. Alserhan
Keywords: Voting Behavior, Arab Group, Permanent Member States, Security Council, General Assembly.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 85 - 103

Abstract

This study discussed the issue from two points, which includes first section discussed the top five countries' external policies towards the Arab area, also pointed out how the area gains a special importance in this regard, which emphasized the efforts of top five countries to penetrate pursuant to their strategies that reflect their interests and objectives.

The Art of Polemic Poetry in Inriching the Literature Inheritage

en
Authors: Abdelraof Z. Mostafa , Omar Alasa’d
Keywords: The Oppositions, The Literature Inheritage, Al-Naq’ed, The Arabic Literature.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 104 - 124

Abstract

This study aims at investigating the art of Polemic Poetry in Old and Modern Literature. It also introduces the most important Poets in the field along with those whom they opposed. In addition, it investigates the reasons and motivation for the emergence and continuation of this art through all artistic eras until nowadays. And finally, the study discusses the results and effects of this art on Arabic Poetry Movement and path.

The Beauty Poetic Structure of Hunting of Abu Nawas Poetry

en
Authors: Hasan F. Bkour , Fou’ad F. Shtayyat
Keywords: Poetic Structure, Concept of Hunting, Abu Nawas.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 125 - 141

Abstract

The research handles many basic titles starting with the concept of hunting, as linguistic dictionaries revealed, its historical beginnings, the reasons that made Abu Nawas to take interest in it, and the views of scholars about it. Also, the research showed the case of construction of Abu Nawas, and how much he was influnced by its general construction in previous poets poetry, and how much renewal he made to it.

Prosing the Rhythm and Rhythming the Prose between the Rhetoric and Intertextuality

en
Authors: Ahmad Z. Al-Rahahleh
Keywords: Prosing the Rhythm, Rhythming the Prose.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 142 - 156

Abstract

This research investigates in the Rhetoric function - and not the legislated- Did not take into consideration the complete function through the Rhetoric study which is (prosing and rhythming), its main principle the function of prosing the Rhythmic words, significance for Rythming the prose. The research has ended by finding more than one significance for the function, its first: The Rhetoric significance which was best related with stealing of taking. Second: the technical significance where the function to will be related will the literate type -which can be said as being obscure. Third: the educational curriculum significance, where the function will reveal a plain educational curriculum. This have resulted through the follow up of the function and its development for some of the most famous Arabic Rhetoricians.

Architecture Descriptive Poetry in the 6th and 7th Hijri Centuries: A Subjective and Imagery Study

en
Authors: Mashhour A. Al-Habazi
Keywords: The Architecture Descriptive, 6th and 7th Hijri Centuries.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 157 - 175

Abstract

The study has tackled some poets work specifically on architecture which attracted their attention in that period for which the poets expressed admiration and appreciation. The study is comprised of seven components: description of schools, mosques, houses and palaces, minarets and mosques minarets, baths, hospitals, and the pyramids. However, the study focused on two aspects: language style and imagery.

The Power of Language and the Formation of Meaning in Al-Bohtari’s Praise of Al-Mutawakkil: Al-Bohtari's Meemeyah

en
Authors: Hasan F. Bkour
Keywords: This study examines Al Bohtari’s praise of Abbasid Caliph, Al-Mutawakkil. The poem's first stanza, entitled "The Woman and the Caliphate as the Two Beloveds), consists of ten verses in which, the poet traditionally stereotypes the woman as an unobtainable
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 176 - 190

Abstract

This study examines Al Bohtari's praise of Abbasid Caliph, Al-Mutawakkil. The poem's first stanza, entitled "The Woman and the Caliphate as the Two Beloveds), consists of ten verses in which, the poet traditionally stereotypes the woman as an unobtainable, for whose sake the poet goes through hazardously experiences. The second stanza, entitled "The Environment of Caliphate", has eight verses which portray the environment of Caliphate as its construction, birds and rivers. The third stanze, entitled "The Hope of the Praised," consists of ten verses in which the poet religiously represents the Caliph as a victorious leader and protector of Islam, Whose face is colourd with a Heavently grace.

A Linguistic Reading of the Textual Strategies of a Poem of “Al-Mutanabi”

en
Authors: Khaled Al-Hazaymeh , Abdelmohdy Al-Jarrah
Keywords: Strategies, Construct, Text, Mutanabi, Continuity.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 191 - 201

Abstract

The research concludes that “Mutanabi” has relied on three textual strategies to create this poetic structure. These strategies are: pragmatic interaction, climatic parallelism, and differnce and similarities. Consequently, the use of these strategies plays an effective role in building the poetic text, the success of its message, and the achievement of its goal.

Obstacles of Professional Practice for Social Workers in Fields of Family and School

en
Authors: Khalil Darwish
Keywords: Social Workers, Professional Practice, Amman
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 202 - 218

Abstract

This study aimed to explore the obstacles that face social workers in family and school fields in Amman using social survey. A questionnaire was used as a tool to gather data, 180 questionnaires were distributed to social workers. The appropriate statistical methods were chosen to answer the study questions and they included Description Statistics (Percentage Repetition, Arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation) also, One-Way ANOVA and Independent-Samples t-test. This study concluded that there were many obstacles that face the social workers in the fields of family and school.

The Methodology of Al-Tabari, "The Historian" During the early Abbasid period 132 A.H/ 749A.D - 170 AH/ 786A.D

en
Authors: Gayda’a K. Katbi
Keywords: Al-Tabari, Historical Writing, Abbasid Period.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 219 - 233

Abstract

Al-Tabari, D.310 A.H/ 922A.D, stands at the summit of historical writing during the first three centuries A.H. His attitude towards history and his methodology were influenced by his other studies, especially on hadith. His history became the reference work for many later historians.

"Wa Qada Rabbuka” A Stylistic Study

en
Authors: Eeman “M.A” Khader Al-Kelani
Keywords: Stylistics, Horizontal Relations, Vertical Relations.
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 234 - 265

Abstract

This study comes under the scope of the stylistic applied studies. It takes from the literary stylistics a means to explore the stylistic deviations in two verses of the holy Qur'an that form a semi-independent subjective semantic unit, in order to interrogate the language of the text in order to appreciate at its aesthetic values, and illuminate its linguistic inimitability, applicably and not theoretically. Therefore, it does launch from already existing concepts, but depends on what the horizontal and the vertical network impasse.

Rethinking Ethnographic Practice in Anthropology: Challenges and Transformations

en
Authors: Mahmoud M. Na’amneh
Keywords: Socio-Cultural Anthropology, Ethnography, Multi-sited, Virtual, Network, Reflexive, Crisis of Representation
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 266 - 271

Abstract

This essay seeks to investigate some of the recent shifts in conducting and writing ethnography in socio-cultural anthropology. Overtime, anthropological thought has undergone a series of major transformations which have reshaped many of our notions, theoretical perspectives, and research methods. Ethnographic practice has traditionally relied on studying spatially localized societies and cultures. However, in the last few years there has been a serious effort to conceptualize ethnography beyond the idea of studying a culture in a geographically defined and bounded field. This essay is primarily concerned with the applications and implications of new forms of ethnography such as multi-sited ethnography, network ethnography, reflexive ethnography, and virtual ethnography. Forces of globalization and transnationalism, in addition to contemporary debate on themes such as subjectivity/objectivity, self/other, and modernism/ postmodernism, have played a pivotal role in the development of these shifts and the emergence of new forms of ethnography.

The Phenomenon of Definite and Indefinite in Arabic and Malay Language

en
Authors: Wejdan M. Kanali
Keywords: Arabic Language, Malay Language, Definite and Indifinite
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 272 - 279

Abstract

This study inquires the contrastive frame in order to analyze and study the phenomenon of “definite and indefinite” in Arabic and Malay languages. It benefits from perceptions of the phenomenon grammars in both languages in an attempt to discover difficulties encountered by Malays in absorbing the phenomenon. The study reveals that “definite and indefinite” inference has two distinguished functions: (1) structural function in which the structure of the linguistic element is specified upon its position, and (2) semantic function through which determinism of the element is specified. The study arrives at some resolutions and suggestions that might contribute towards teaching methods and applied research.

The Spanish Language: It’s Evolution and Importance

en
Authors: Ziad M. Qouqazah , Ahmad H. Al-Afeef
Keywords: Spain, Latin America, North America, Spanish Language, Castilian Language, Evolution of Spanish, importance and universality of Spanish
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 280 - 287

Abstract

Spanish Language is considered nowadays as one of the most important languages. There are more than 4000 million persons who speak this language as first or second language. Moreover, too many people are interested to learn it for political, economical, cultural and scientific purposes. The massive spread of Spanish passed by several stages, such as: the domain of Castilian Language, the colonial stage and post-colonial stage. Spanish became as a universal language, thus, we found it necessary to shed the light on its importance by demonstrating it by using some accurate statistics made by some scholars. We also focused on mentioning the countries where Spanish is spoken as a first language, and we mentioned also the importance of the university of Spanish in giving fame to some Spanish literary idols.

Aesthetic Value of Predication in Prosodic Variation

en
Authors: Khalaf K. AL-Kreisheh
Keywords: Prosodic Variation, i’itimad
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 288 - 301

Abstract

The researcher tries to discuss the concepts of predication (‘i’timad) and variation (zahaf) and their relation to each other when al-Khalil b. Ahmad al-Farahidi (100-170 A.H) studied the metrics of Arabic poetry; he noticed that at some places of a poetic line the omission of an element was aesthetically pleasant and occurs regularly, where as at other places it would be unpleasant and it would destroy the balance of the metrics. He laid down cord (sabab) and peg (watid) as fundamentals of analogy and argumentation for metrics. Cord (sabab) where placed where variation was good. Peg (awtad) where it was not good. There is a predication tie between cords, pegs and the process of variation. All variations in verse may be classed under three headings: good (hasan), bad (qabih), and acceptable (Salih). Good is a variation of frequent occurrence in poetry. Bad is a variation of rare usage. Acceptable is a variation in – between, but distinct from the two others. These variation components clarifies the concept of predication (i’itimad) by strengthening the intrinsic relationship among the trianglic metrical structure in poetic rhythm, namely: al-‘amid (peg), al-mamud (cord) and al- i’itimad (predicate variation).

Abstract

The U.S.A treats the Third World antagonistically and deals with their issues unfairly, particularly if the case is related to the Arab World. The U.S.A treats the Third World countries, aggressively and strictly, especially after the deterioration of the USSR. It depends on its military power, on one hand, and on deceiving Public Opinion by propagating misleading facts, and by disseminating wrong information to its people and the rest of the World. There are three main reasons that encouraged the U.S.A to occupy Iraq. The First is its Oil, the second is to reshape the Middle East countries, in line with the Israeli interests, and the third is to deepen the conflict between the Arab countries in general, and the Iraqi people, in particular. Thus, this study aims to assess the degree to which the Jordanian daily newspapers have dealt with the U.S policy towards the Middle East issues, namely the occupation of Iraq. The researcher analysed the contents of the Jordanian caricatures, relevant to the above-mentioned policy in, “Al Arab-Alyawm” and “Ad-Dustour” daily newspapers between March and May 2003. In regard to the Jordanian daily press coverage of the U.S policy in Iraq towards Iraq's occupation, the theme of the research as pointed out in the title has raised a number of questions. First, what were the main issues that attracted the Jordanian daily caricature towards portraying the occupation of Iraq? Second, what was the stance of the Jordanian daily newspapers towards occupying Iraq; and third how did the Jordanian daily newspapers present the U.S.A policy in Iraq? The research employed a combination of two methods, content analysis and interviews. The researcher reached to the following conclusions: 1. The highest percentage (22.8%) was given to the coverage that was devoted to both president Bush and to the damages happened to both Iraq and the U.S. 2. The second highest percentage (20%) was given to the coverage related to the connection between Israel and the U.S.A. 3. The Lowest percentage (10%) was given to the passive role of the United Nations, regarding this issue.

Lynch’s American Expedition to Jordan River Valley and the Dead Sea (1847/1848)

en
Authors: Ibrahim AL-Shraah
Keywords: American Expedition, Lynch, Jordan River
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 324 - 340

Abstract

This study seeks to identify the beginnings of American interest in the Jordan River basin (Palestine and Transjordan) in the middle of the nineteenth century, which was manifested in the American Expedition that was led by Officer Lynch. This officer visited Jordan River and the Dead Sea in 1848 for economic, scientific, and religious reason. That visit was so significant because it was the first successful American expedition to the area. Lynch showed great interest in the region and recommended settling Jews in that area.

The Arab – African Relations Reality in the light of the International Competition Policies (1991-2006)

en
Authors: Mohammed A. Al-mogdad
Keywords: Arab-African Relations, International Competition, Interdependence, Civil Society, Regional Security, International Influential
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 341 - 363

Abstract

The Content of this Study stands on investigation for the reality of the Arab – African relations in the Context of increased international Competition especially with the end of the Cold War. The goal is to identify the major obstacles or challenges that block consolidating the bonds of cooperation between both the Arab and Africans. Also, it aims at discussing the mechanisms and the necessary procedures to activate the Arab – African cooperation at both formal and popular levels. The importance of this study lies in a time where we witness an increase in the international influence in the African content especially form the European Union, the U.S.A and Israel in economic and military fields Where as the Arab influence has decreased due to the absence of Arab strategies and plans on both the formal and Arabic popular levels. The study stems up form several Hypothesis among which is that the Arab African relations which can be characterized by stagnation and weakness in comparison with the African –Non – Arab relations could be strengthen by providing attractive frameworks that could facilitate cooperation and built on under standing especially the Arab African lies are rooted in civilized, geographical economic and religious fields. further more; the similarity between the needs of demands of the Arab African states and the challenges encountered by both should foster cooperation in all levels. The study used each of historical, comparative, and systems approaches, there employees to illustrate the study hypotheses. Finally, the study came to many conclusions and recommendations among which the importance of consolidating Arab – African cooperation as strategic requirement for both in all fields. such goal enceintes Knowledge and educational in the nations of cooperation. Also, this requires the work the both formal and in formal institutions such as civil society organizations.