Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 37, Issue 2

Cultures in Conflict: An Interpretation of Alice Walker's "Everyday Use"

en
Authors: Iman A. Hanafy
Keywords: African American, Race, Heritage, Quilts, Cultural Identity
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 1 - 9

Abstract

Alice Walker is an African American writer whose novels, short stories and poems are noted for their insightful treatment of black culture. In her short story "Everyday Use," Alice Walker introduces the conflict between two different cultures of African Americans: the oppressive culture of the dominant majority who struggles to survive in hostile environments and an emerging consciousness which challenges cultural bias and fights against racial class, creating a different culture from the earlier one. It is a story of cultures in conflict.

Globalization and the Left in Latin America

en
Authors: Ziad Eyadat
Keywords: Globalization, Democratization, Latin America, The Left, International Relations, Comparative Politics.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 10 - 20

Abstract

This paper explores the hypothesis that the contradiction between democratization and globalization strengthens the revolutionary left in Latin America. Relying heavily on a critical analysis of the literature on globalization, democratization, and the left in Latin America, the study employs illustrative historical examples to provide preliminary support for the hypothesis. This paper discusses whether or not globalization leads to cross-national convergence of macroeconomic policies, it also manifests the impact of globalization on the cleavage structure of domestic politics. Therefore, the paper contributes to better understand the complexities of globalization and the matrix of opportunities and constrains within which the left operates in Latin America. The paper concludes that these concomitant processes of globalization and democratization have polarized the left, weakened the reformers and strengthened the radicals.

Contextual Eloquence in Omar Ben Al Khattab’s Judicial Narrations

en
Authors: Firyaal A. Hudieb , Mohammad Ali Shrydeh
Keywords: contextual Eloquence, Narrations, Omar Ben Al Khattab, Judicial
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 21 - 36

Abstract

Judicial literature is a pillar in a nation's culture and mentality. This research aims at studying this literature in the performance of Omar Ben AlKhattaab, may he be pleased by God, who is considered a pioneer in composing this literature for the purpose of setting up a state of justice and equality. Omar's judicial narrated accounts are studied in two directions. The first direction studies their contents to demonstrate the valued and human dimensions that secure the highest possible human level of justice. The second direction studies the modes of expression that make the texts cohesive and coherent to achieve certain literary objectives of comprehension, stimulation, and persuasion. The research finds that Omar Ben Al Khattaab was concerned about accommodating judges and litigants with all physical and moral conditions to spread an atmosphere of integrity and justice for the judiciary acts among people. The research also finds that the language of legislative propositions is congruent with the occasions when these propositions were said and the reasons why they were said. These propositions are succinct, simple in structure and direct to suit the human innate nature and disposition. They also use structures and styles suitable for any occasion or thought to render the desired emotional and intellectual effect. They prove to be a model for administrative literature in the early post-Islamic era.

Rural Singing in Jordan

en
Authors: Mohammad Ghawanmeh
Keywords: Rural Singing, Popular Singing, Jordanian Singing, Jordan.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 37 - 57

Abstract

This research aims at highlighting one of the genuine vocal forms in Jordan, which is known as “rural singing”. This is done through identifying the poetical and musical characteristics, as well as recognizing the most famous forms of rural singing in Jordan, in addition to the most artistic terms used in this form. The researcher addressed, through Analysis and Study, the most important poetical features of rural poety such as poetical Rhyme, Prosody, architecture, and themes of the poem, and the most musical features of rural singing in Jordan especially that which refers to the melodic rhythm, musical ornamentation, and musical performance, as well as the most well-known forms such as: Aldalohna’, Zareef Altool, and Aljafra. In addition, the researcher has developed a list of the most important artistic terms: poetical and musical terms used in the Jordanian rural singing. The researcher came up, by the end of this research, to a group of results related to the subject as well as the suggested recommendations; he also formed a list that explains the meanings of musical words used in the search, and a bibliography based on the most important references he referred to.

The Educational Thinking in the Diaries of Abu-Haneefa

en
Authors: Khaled S. Al-Shraideh
Keywords: Abu-Haneefa Diaries, Educational Theory, Scholar, Seminars.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 58 - 76

Abstract

It seems that the Modern Educational Theory has swung between the genuine past and the modern present. We have found in Abu-Haneefa AInouman's diaries a global educational thinking which absorbed that thesis from all dimensions. Abu-Haneefa lived in the Arab Islamic civilization which was in its peak specially in the second half of the first Hijrah century, the first half of the second Hijrah century where sciences were varied and the time was too tight to enable his pupils to get everything. So, specializing in education coupled with God’s acceptance was an approach in which he was a pioneer. He found that a pupil should be out of life's affairs to take the education he needs and to have the balanced opportunity to achieve. So, science should be taken purely and scientists should be awarded. Abu-Haneefa found that good company, helping pupils and being generous with them are from the conditions the scientist should have where a pupil can express himself freely, and this is obvious in his message “the Scientist and the Educated” and in his Seminars in AI-Kufa Mosque. Education has a great benefit in Abu-Haneefa’s view; his bearer will be ascended to the top. Education is the beauty to the rich and the richness to the poor, so, we should continue learning even if education has a teacher and a pupil should choose the right person from whom he will take the good knowledge. He should have perseverance without being biased to a certain doctrine. His course is pure and varied. The teacher should be modest and have acceptance. Abu -Haneefa sees that the sources of pupil's culture is the most important. The comprehensive culture in its sources:- the basics first and the opinion and Measurement are the second which is the source of discussion, it will make for the scientist his right place and make him the Keblah where every pupil should do his pilgrimage.

Leadership, Humanism and Sufism Diversity in Vision and Structure in Emir Abdelkader Poetry Structuralism and Genetic Approach

en
Authors: Noureddine Saddar
Keywords: Word View, Expressed, Homology, Significant Structure, Constitute, Real Consciousness, Possible Consciousness, Collective Consciousness, Intertextuality.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 77 - 101

Abstract

This study is based on the assumption that any intellectual or innovative work implies a universal vision of the world. This vision is not necessarily limited to that of the thinker or the innovator but has social, cultural and spiritual roots in the society to which the thinker or the innovator belongs. Vision is not expressed outside the text but it is deeply embedded inside the relationship linking the literary work, taken as a specific construction, to the general structure providing its artistic style. It takes a formal and expressive aspect so that they (text and vision) can be superimposed. Thus, the structural constitutive of the vision requires this or that construction taking as a starting point this hypothesis. The present study reads Emir Abdelkader poetry as a superficial and particular structure having its structural constitutive and its referring form representing the inner collective consciousness in its intimate and interlaced relationship with the superficial structure (i.e with Emir Abdelkader poetry). On this basis, we tackle two main points. The 1st point is devoted to the elements of the vision of the Emir as a poet in the world which is not only a reaction to his poetry but is a vision taking into account the consciousness of the poet at the intellectual, religious, humanist and ascetic levels … this vision not only unveils the itinerary of the poet but is firmly rooted in the cultural, intellectual, religious and political field in which lived Emir Abdelkader making him a leader, a human and a Sufi. Consequently, the vision contained in the poetry of Emir AEK is multi-levels according to the variety of its constituents: leadership, humanism and Sufism. In this view, we can consider that there is a variation in vision. The 2nd point is devoted to the study, the expression of the stylistic structure as a result of the variation in Emir AbdelKader’s poetry and a model of the ability of the poet to perform his poetry according to the context he is deriving his language from. The 2nd part of this 2nd point is deduced from this: the expression of the poem of Emir AbdelKader was not neutral from the variation of vision. This variation was present at the expressive level and was apparent in various linguistic rhythms such as in redundancy and poetic image and intertextuality.

Jesuitry in James Joyce's Ulysses

en
Authors: Abdul-Qader A. Khattab , Thafer Y. Sarairah
Keywords: James Joyce, Ulysses, Jesuitry
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 102 - 110

Abstract

This paper examines the concept of Jesuitry and its negative connotations in James Joyce's Ulysses. Historically, this religious order, which was often viewed as fearful, criminal, outlaw and suspicious organization, resonates in the novel's themes and characters. For instance, the Jesuit's reputation for subtlety, craft and deviousness relate perfectly to the themes of nostalgia, alienation and disconnectedness. The paper also analyzes selected passages from the text of Ulysses to look at the appropriateness of applying "jesuitness" to characters in the novel, in particular Bloom, Stephen and Father Conmee.

The Philosophical Context of Thomas Hardy's Conception of History

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Authors: Aida O. Azouqa
Keywords: Thomas Hardy, Conception of History
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 111 - 129

Abstract

The publication of numerous historical novels during the Victorian age attests to the survival of Sir Walter Scott’s legacy of the Waverley novels. Nevertheless, Thomas Hardy’s Wessex historical novels form a break from Scott’s tradition of Historical Romances. The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886), and Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891) illustrate Hardy's substitution of the socio-economic and technological changes that took place in rural England during the 1830s for Scott’s political context to portray their impact on the rural communities. At the same time, Hardy’s Wessex novels, as well as his epic-drama The Dynasts (1903; 1905; 1908), which depicts the rise and fall of Napoleon Bonaparte, exhibit the skeptical spirit of the age in terms of their assimilation of the principles of the leading philosophers, historians, and biologists of the times, such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Auguste Comte, Arthur Schopenhauer, Thomas Carlyle, and Charles Darwin. Hardy himself acknowledges their impact on his ontological outlook on life in general, and on history in particular. Accordingly, using the above mentioned texts as representatives of Hardy's work, the study aims at assessing the influence of those intellectuals on Hardy’s work, in terms of his conception of the historical process, as a process of repeated tragedies rather than of progress, his evaluation of change, as well as his views on the universal condition of humanity throughout the ages; the study also focuses on Hardy’s fictional methods, such as his manipulation of time, especially the connection of the ancient past with the present, to dramatize his personal convictions on history and life.

LF Representations and the Interpretation of Some Collocations from the Glorious Qur’an with Reference to Chomsky’s (1995) Minimalist Views: Thematic Relations

en
Authors: Atef Jalabneh
Keywords: Collocations, minimalist program, thematic relations, logical form, spell-out, etc.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 130 - 142

Abstract

The research aims at explicating, for the first time, the crucial roles played by the thematic relations in deciding the grammaticality of structures and determining the meaning of certain collocations found in the first ten verses (Ayas) of Surat Al-Shams from the Glorious Qur’an translated by Al-Hilali (1417, h). Although theta roles are abstract notions that appear at the spell-out level, they are maintained at the logical form because their omission defects not only the structure but also the translated meaning at all levels. Intuitively, collocations are idiosyncratic in nature and may convey meanings in segregation; however, in this work, they are to be studied in structures in relation to a predicate as they constitute arguments, namely, N”, T”, C” and P” that carry theta roles. It is argued that each argument is assigned a semantic role and each semantic role is assigned to each collocation to avoid confusion of interpretation at LF. The researcher also argues that theta roles are essential to determine the intended meaning in translation; therefore, they cannot be deleted at any level of syntax.

Metrics of Arabic Poetry between Reservation and Innovation

en
Authors: Raed J. Okashah , Ahmed I. Odwan
Keywords: Metrics, The Poem, The Poetry, Prose, The Prose Poem, The Addresses
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 143 - 157

Abstract

It could be argued that most of the conservatism around the Arabic poem focused on the development of metrics since the pre-Islamic era. Many studies tackled the changes that the Arabic poem has undergone as well as its manifestations in the mental and literary spheres and the extent to which it appeals to the Arab addressee. Meter is the base of the Arabic poetry that has always been used as a criterion for classifying poets and judging the good poetry. For the poetic expression to be inspiring, it has to appeal to the collective social unconsciousness. Therefore, the vision of our ancestor critics sprang from controlling rules for the poetic process that takes into consideration the factors of interactive creative process. These factors include: the creative writer, the text and the addressee. The present study tackles the following aspects of metric poetry: the model, the addressee, the debate of feeling and thought, the environment, the literary genre, the rhyme and the rhythm. It comes up with the view of predeassors and modern scholars on these terms

The Eagle Myth and the Search for Eternity in the Al-Jahilia Poetry

en
Authors: Ihsan Deek
Keywords: Al-Jahilee Poetry, Myth
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 158 - 174

Abstract

The eagle acquired the lion share in terms of Al-Jahilee (pre-Islam era) man’s attention, and was the most tied to his misgivings. That man binded the bird with the thoughts of nobleness, which elevated it out of the circle of bestiality to a point of near holiness. The research tries to unravel the reasons for making the eagle enjoy such a sanctity and the secrets behind linking it with the eternity in the mind of Al-Jahilia man. The research endeavors to find out the grounds for making it such a myth in terms of its strength, its connection with the death, its elevation and highness, its fertility and ties to life. The study takes Luqman’s story, whose landmarks fainted, and became a narrative, as an attestation for making the bird a legend, and its linkup to the imperishability.