Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 37, Issue 3

Features of Rural Heritage in Hasan Bakr AL-Aazzazi`s Poetry: Diwan “Uyoon Salma” A model

en
Authors: Fayez Aref Al-Quraan , Hamed kassab Ayyat
Keywords: The Arabic Poetry, Jordan, 20th Century, Hasan Bakr Al-Azzazi.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 1 - 15

Abstract

The present study aims at knowing the features of the rural life in hasan Bakr AL-Azzazi`s poetry. In his poetry, one can observe some features of this life where the relation with the daily heritage of the simple local society is observable. In other words, his poetry expresses the life of normal people. The rural features were reflected in three main aspects: the image of the rural features, familiar sentence patterns, and used lexical items.

Employing Imperative Structures and Their Stylistic Alternatives in Mahmoud Darwish's "Jidariyya": A Semantic Study of the Imperative Structure

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Authors: Amal Shafeeq Al-Omari
Keywords: Employing Imperative Structures, Stylistic Alternatives, Mahmoud Darwish's "Jidariyya.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 16 - 34

Abstract

This paper addresses imperative structures in Mahmoud Darwish's "Jidariyya" ("Mural of Mahmoud Darwish"). The paper semantically examines the poetic lines that represent the phenomenon of imperative structure. The imperative structure consists of two basic elements, namely the imperative verb which functions as a condition, and the apodosis (i.e., the outcome of the command) (imperfect jussive mood, or imperfect indicative mood). The researcher has found out that the "Jidariyya of Mahmoud Darwish" utilizes many varied imperative structures of one element of the imperative sentence as stylistic alternatives. These will be described and analyzed in the course of the discussion. This paper demands two requirements. The first, a preface that includes a brief biography of the poet and his "Jidariyya," a brief theoretical introduction about the approach used in this paper, and about some of the technical terms used. The second requirement: the patterns and types of the imperative structure: the imperative sentence that has the function of a condition, the interrogative sentence, the negative imperative sentence, and the vocative sentence. The linguistic patterns of the imperative structure varied in the "Jidariyya" according to the semantic purposes Darwish had in mind: like vocative sentences, interrogative sentences, and negative imperative sentences, that are used as stylistic alternatives replacing the first element of the imperative sentence (the imperative verb that functions as a condition). The nominal sentence, the imperfect subjunctive mood, the interrogative sentence, the vocative sentence, and the optative sentence replaced, as stylistic alternatives, the second element of the imperative sentence (the imperfect indicative and imperfect jussive moods). Through the discussion of these patterns different examples on these structures and their stylistic alternatives were contextually analyzed both linguistically and semantically.

An Account on the Function of Specific Particles (Resemblance vs. Conjugation)

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Authors: Hassan El-Malkh El-Malkh
Keywords: : Arabic Grammar, Governance Theory, Explanation.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 35 - 53

Abstract

This research claims that some of the grammatical reasons are fallible explanations whose authenticity can be reviewed. Explaining the function of Noun or verb-specific particles, for instance, in light of the governance theory is an incomplete definition. Therefore, explaining specificity of some governing agents, on the other hand, such as (Inna and its sisters – إن وأخواتها) as verbally and semantically resembling past-tense-verb is inaccurate. This research has suggested a more precise explanation, as proposed by some grammarians: the linguistic differentiation, that marks conjugations of the noun, present tense (imperfect tense), or nominal sentences. Conjugation, therefore, substitutes specificity; and differentiation, analogously, substitutes resemblance. As discussed through this research, it is proven native that conjugation through disparity is a consistent didactic justification, which redeems Arabic syntax and its learners from overstating explanations, redundant evaluation, and weak analogy.

Impact of Arabic Cafes on Literary Salons and Rise of the French Revolution

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Authors: Ahlam Sbaihat
Keywords: Coffeehouses, Arabic Influence on Europe, Literary Salons, Orientalism, French Revolution, Houses of Knowledge
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 54 - 64

Abstract

The rise of the European Renaissance movement, and the secular thought climbing, with the deterioration of the church, and withdrawal of the aristocratic equestrian era resulted in an emergence of a layer appeared from cultured people, who suffered from social injustice. The study presents alternatives for exchange of the knowledge and presents new schemes to choose the revolutionary coffeehouses as a center that lead to explosion of French revolution, which resulted in freedom, politics, and in the modern world. From these coffeehouses “Encyclopédie Française”, the Declaration of Human Rights were announced, and the first “Constitution of USA", the sponsor of the globalization. The salons used only for the coffee, in 15th century in Yemen, then had spread by Arab commerce to all Ottoman territories, through whom the Cafes were introduced to France where they converted in literary cafes we the French revolutionary thoughts were born.

The Relationship of Caliph Al- Mustarshid with the Saldjuki Sultanate (512-529 /1119-1135)

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Authors: Hmud Mad’an Iyal-Salman
Keywords: Al- Mustarshid, Saldjuki Sultanate, Abbasid Caliphate.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 65 - 87

Abstract

This study aims at revealing the relationship of Caliph Al- Mustarshid and the Saldjuki Sultanate and his role in resisting its spread in Iraq. The study deals with the life of Caliph Al- Mustarshid (512-529 / 1119-1135). It also introduces the establishment and development of the Saldjuki Sultanate (429-512/ 1038-1135). The study focuses on the relationship between Caliph Al- Mustarshid and the Saldjuki Sultanate (512-529/ 1119-1135). This period has been described into the following four stages: preparation for confrontation (512-517/ 1119-1131), the first confrontation (517-525/ 1124-1131), the second confrontation and independence (525-529/ 1131-1135), war with Sultan Masoud and the Caliph's murder (529/1135).

Spatial Development Disparities between Development Plans and Buildings and Land Organization Order for Towns and Villages in Jordan (Case Study)

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Authors: Othman M. Ghunaim , Majida Abu Zanat
Keywords: Spatial Development Dispasities, Development Plans, Land Organization
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 88 - 98

Abstract

This study is aimed to present and analyze the developmental constructive attributed differences from the point of view developmental plans and construction system in the urban and rural areas in Jordan. The researchers used the analytical a methodology to achieve the target through the collected data, which based on the above mentioned system (19/1985 –Jordan rules). This study concluded that incompatibility and inconsistency exist between the Jordanian development plans and the urban and rural laws specially when disparities limitation are concerned, although the development national and regional plans concentrates on the limitation of disparities, the building regulations deepness these disparities as a result of absence vision, comprehensive and integrated development when dealing with development process at the three spatial levels: national, regional , and local. This study recommends, revising containment of the above mentioned laws, and assured to deal with these plans on three dimensions, national, regional, and local comprehensively not isolated.

The Intellectuals Crisis in The Novel of "Bakaya Thalg" for Issam Mossa

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Authors: Nidal Mohamed Alshamali , Bilal Kamal Abdelfatah
Keywords: The Intellectual, The Authority, The Author
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 99 - 113

Abstract

Novel is still considered the peaceful eye that we saw through it the social issues. Also it is the power that takes up points of views, attendances and changeable thoughts. As it seems to be that the intellectual is the dynamic element in the society. From this point this study is made to clear the place of the intellectual who still suffers from elementarily and lack of bordering in facing the social issues of his society, in the Jordanian novel. The novel of “ Bakaya thalg” for Issam Mossa 2007 is the model. The study concerns in identifying the intellectual in all his sides: knowledge, behavior, qualifications, issues interests, kinds, and all the changes that faced him. All of that is through the pages of the novel which is considered to be a small society taken from the real society, and from his way of dealing with daily changeable life news. This novel looks into his points of view from these issues if it is from woman, governments, journalism, education and environment. Because of that this study will trace the theoretical concern that governs his behavior, his reaction and the reaction of the society towards him, then to judge him. All of that this study will not lost to make on artificial evaluation of the intellectual image as a character just of paper comes on the pages of the novel the it separates consciously from the emotions of the writer himself.

Levels of Desire to Join the Workforce: Its Determinants and Relation to the Well-Being of the Working Woman

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Authors: Wisam D. Break
Keywords: Working Woman, Desire Levels, Workforce, Well-being, Mental Heath, Physical Health.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 114 - 136

Abstract

This study investigates the differences in the levels of desire of working women to join the workforce in relation to various demographic variables. It also studies the effect of these differences on the working women’s psychological and physical well-being. Various instruments were used in this study: the demographic questionnaire, the psychological symptoms scale, the psychosomatic disorders, the chronic and acute diseases scales, and the self perceived scale. The sample of the study consisted of (568) working woman, aged between (20-60) years, who have been working over three years in various private or public vocational sectors in the governorate of Amman. The results of the study revealed that most of the demographic variables have created significant differences in the desire levels of working women to join the workforce. There were also significant differences in the women’s psychological symptoms, their chronic diseases and self assessment of health status, in relation to their desire to join the workforce. There were no significant differences between the sesire levels to join the workforce and acute diseases.

Reversal of Roles between Animals and Humans in the Time of White Horses “Zaman al Khyool Albayda”

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Authors: Wafa Al-khadra , Alia Saleh
Keywords: Post-Structural Theory, Post-Humanism, Human-Animal Nexus, Reversal of Roles
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 137 - 149

Abstract

This paper examines a new paradigm of human-animal nexus which emerged as a result of a post-structural theory in general and the so-called post-humanism in particular. The paper begins with surveying the new concept of post-humanism focusing on surveying Western thinkers and theorists who contributed to the theory of post-humanism and examining it within the context of Arabic literature; Ibrahim Nasrralah's contemporary Arabic novel entitled the Time of White Horses is an example. The study reveals the unorthodoxy of the human-animal nexus through the reversal of roles between both in the aforementioned novel as portrayed by the novelist using various narrative techniques that helped in enriching the text with different levels of meaning.

Condolences In Arabic Heritage: Syntactic-Semantic Study

en
Authors: Kholoud Al-Omoush
Keywords: Language of Discourse, Condolences, Syntax, Semantics
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 150 - 170

Abstract

This paper studies the language of discourse "Condolences" in Arabic Heritage. It is partially based on the achievements of the discourse Analysis School. "Condolences" is defined as what is said to the relations of a dead person to sympathize and show emotions to them. The Study has investigated the linguistic features in the letter of condolences. Those features have been highlighted by analyzing relatively a long letter of condolences. This study also concerns itself with as patience is used in soothing the pain and suffering of the kins of the deceased. Studying the language of condolences clarifies the linguistic patterns and forms used by Arabs to sympathize with each other in an issue of existence that has a great impact on life, which is death. Finally, the paper may enable us in later stages of research to find the cultural and social implications that are Associated by condolences.

Features of Rural Heritage in Hasan Bakr AL-Aazzazi`s Poetry: Diwan “Uyoon Salma” A model

en
Authors: Hamed kassab Ayyat
Keywords: The Arabic Poetry, Jordan, 20th Century, Hasan Bakr Al-Azzazi.Keywords
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 171 - 185

Abstract

The present study aims at knowing the features of the rural life in hasan Bakr AL-Azzazi`s poetry. In his poetry, one can observe some features of this life where the relation with the daily heritage of the simple local society is observable. In other words, his poetry expresses the life of normal people. The rural features were reflected in three main aspects: the image of the rural features, familiar sentence patterns, and used lexical items

The Critical Tendency at Ibn Jubair's Journey

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Authors: Mohammad N. Al-Amaira , Shafeeq M. Al-Roqoub
Keywords: Ibn Jubair, The Critical Tendency, Journey
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 186 - 195

Abstract

Ibn Jubair has depicted in his journey several pictures of the social architecture in the countries he visited. Some alien scenes attracted his attention, and so he criticized them, especially those contradict the Islamic religion, or those which he has not been familiar with in the Islamic Western World. This study aims at investigating the critical tendency in his journey, the extent of its relationship with Ibn Jubair himself, and the forms that it represented. This study will focus on two frames; the political and administrational critique; and the social critique.

Speaking Between Theory and Practice

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Authors: Mohammad Al-Shraydeh , Firyaal Hudieb
Keywords: Speaking, Practice, Theory
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 196 - 211

Abstract

In this research, we attempted to frame the concepts of oral speech depending on Jordan University's experience in teaching the speaking skill which is considered a part of the Arabic communication skills courses. We studied this experience and its weaknesses, and reviewed the importance of this skill as well as, its mechanism and elements. We found that the speaking skill is an important matter for every person because people are innately disposed for speaking though they differ in their performance. The person who naturally has a talent for speaking should acquire other elements of knowledge, and make use of the means, preparation and conscious speech. The person who does not have an innate talent for speaking can learn how to communicate with others to the extent that would make him feel satisfied about himself and about the receiver of his speech. We concluded with some recommendations that a public speaker needs, and the distinct differences between various forms of speaking that different speakers should realize. An orator, for example, needs to realize some elements of speaking that differ from those that a negotiator, a debater, or an improviser needs. Finally, we think that speaking cannot be influential unless a speaker realizes his aim in making some change and effect, and achieves the optimal goal of conveying the desired massage.

A Comparison of Pixel-Based and Object-Based Classification Approaches in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Dead Sea Region Using Landsat Imagery

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Authors: Hussam H. Al-Bilbisi , Zeyad M. Makhamreh
Keywords: Landsat, Image Classification, Pixel-based, Object-based, Dead Sea.
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 212 - 222

Abstract

In this study, land cover types in Dead Sea area were analyzed on the basis of the classification results acquired using the pixel based and object-oriented image analysis approaches. A subset of Landsat TM satellite data was used for a comparison between pixel-based and object-based classification approaches. Ground truth data were collected from the available maps, aerial photographs, and personal knowledge. In pixel-based supervised classification, the spectral information for each pixel is utilized as the basis of categorization, the result shows that there are some small areas of anomalous pixels (salt and pepper) representing the noise in the data within the same class. On the other hand, object-oriented image analysis was evaluated based on object characteristics. This approach classifies not single pixels but groups of pixels that represent already existing objects in the field represent the n dimensional feature space for the classification. The result indicated an overall accuracy of 81.6% for pixel-based approach and 80.7% for object-based approach. The accuracy of the vegetation class is improved from 69% (for pixel-based) to 78.5% (for object-based). Outcome from the classification show that the object-oriented approach shows more accurate boundary results especially for agricultural land cover classes than those achieved by pixel-based classification algorithms.