Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 38, Issue 2

Poetry and War The Invasion of Iraq in the Contemporary Arabic Poetry

en
Authors: Ibrahim M. Mansour
Keywords: War, Siege, Iraq, Oil, George Bush, Alienation, Elegy, Irony
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 1 - 17

Abstract

Arabic poetry has been connected with wars since the pre-Islamic era. That is why Mohammed Ibn Salam (139 -231 A.H.) attributed the abundance of poetry in certain regions to the outbreak of wars among the tribes in those places. The Anglo American invasion of Iraq and the occupation of Baghdad in 2003 have had such a traumatic impact on Arabs and Muslims, which was reflected in Iraqi poetry during the aggressive war and even before during the siege that had paved the way for the invasion. Then, Iraqi, as well as Arab and non-Arab poets set off describing the lies and fake stories promulgated by U.S.A. and the U.K. to justify the invasion. Hence, the uprising of poets was to expose and condemn the invaders. The tragedy of war and its afflictions have been illustrated in Arabic poetry. When the confrontation between the American invaders and the Iraqi extended for six years, there appeared elegies that bemoaned the loss of Arab dignity and glory on the Iraqi land.

Coping Strategies among Survivors and Affected Families of the Amman Hotels explosions

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Authors: Fawwaz Ayoub Momani , Rafe Al zagoul
Keywords: Coping strategies, explosions, victims of terror
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 18 - 38

Abstract

This study aimed at investigating Coping strategies among survivors and affected families of the Amman Hotels explosions. To achieve the purpose of the study, the researchers constructed Coping Strategies Scale. The participants of the study were (353) persons of the survivors and their first degree relatives who once engaged implicitly or explicitly in Amman Hotels explosions. The researchers used Means, Standard Deviation, Two-Ways ANOVA. The results pointed out that the most common coping strategies used by survivors and affected families came in a moderate in all subscales of the coping strategies scale except the solving problem and active coping subscale which came high. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the degree of possessing coping strategies among survivors attributed to the effect of sex on the subscales of religious and emotional discharging in favor of female. Whereas, there were no differences attributed to the effect of the other subscales. The results pointed out that there were statistically significant differences attributed to the effect of direct exposure to the explosions on the subscale of problem solving in favor of those who were exposed directly to the explosions. The results revealed that there were statistically significant differences attributed to the effect of self blame in favor of those who were not exposed directly to the explosions. Whereas, there were no differences on the rest of the subscales. The results confirmed that there were statistically significant differences attributed to the effect of experiencing previous trauma on the subscale of religious in favor of having previous trauma, and also differences on the subscales of relaxation and entertainment in favor of not having previous trauma. Whereas, there were no differences on the rest of the subscales. The study was concluded with some recommendations in the light of the main findings.

Evaluating Sensory Training Services Introduced to Visually Disabled Children

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Authors: Salah Hamdan Al-Louzi , Sawsan Mahmoud Mohammed
Keywords: disability, sensory training, children, vision, hearing, touching, smelling
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 39 - 55

Abstract

This study evaluated sensory training services introduced to students of Abdullah Ibn Um Maktoum School in the city of Amman through a social survey. The study was conducted on 136 male and female students through using the instruments of a questionnaire, an interview, and a discussion with each of two focus groups. The questionnaire composed of two parts. The first part included some questions related to the characteristics of respondents and their families. The second part included the Scale of Sensory Training which included thirteen statements related to the development of each of the senses of smelling, touching, hearing, and vision. All statements were designed according to Likert Scale with five response categories. Many statistical techniques were employed, including frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, and Cronbach's Alpha to measure the internal consistency among statements of the used scale. One-Way ANOVA test was also used to test the statistical differences between means of respondents’ responses. The level of significance was set at an alpha level of 0.05. Findings showed that respondents held a positive position towards services provided to them that were related to the development of visual sense with a statistical mean value of 4.01. In contrast, respondents had a negative position towards services provided to them that were related to each of the senses of hearing with a mean value of 1.74, smelling with a mean value of 1.68, and touching with a mean value of 1.54. Respondents’ position towards all statements of the scale was negative with a mean value of 1.64. Generally, there were differences with a statistical significance between respondents’ position towards the Scale of Sensory Training and each of the variables of age and education. Conversely, there were no differences with a statistical significance between respondents’ position towards the Scale of Sensory Training and each of the two variables of gender and intensity of disability. Finally, the study provided many recommendations that were derived from the findings.

Jewish Historical Figures as Revealed in Andalusian Poetry

en
Authors: Nafitha Naser Al Sharabaty
Keywords: Jews, Andalusian poetry, Alsamiri, Joshua Ben-Nun, Belaam, Samaw'al
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 56 - 69

Abstract

Alsamiri took several Andalusian poetic symbols once he was the symbol of the magic of a magician and a symbol of strife which all people didn’t have to approach. But Joshua Ben-Nun, a Biblical figure, was the mostly motioned one in Andalusian poetry, not only it had the story of the sun's consent to him enriched poets' imagination, but also it also took a significant area in their poetic style. However, Al-'abid Belaam was rarely mentioned in Andalusian poetry, while Samaw'al was the most famous Jewish figures in their poetry and came mostly an image filled with a lot of meanings such as faithfulness, helping and supporting the weak in all means whatever they cost. "Al-ablaq", Samaw'al's palace, became a symbol of nobility and strength as well as protection.

The Rhetoric Formation in Ibn Khatimah Al-Ansari Al-Adalusi’s Lilerary Works

en
Authors: Hamdi Mansour , Sa’ed Al-Anzi
Keywords: The Rhetotric Formation, Ibn Khatimah
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 70 - 87

Abstract

This Study tackles the knack by which Ibn khatimah Al Ansari Al Andalusi made the rhetoric formation and images whether they were rhetoric, metaphor, metonymy, or diction Research. Also, it revealed that Ibn Khatinah had high capacity in poetry composing related to in the affiant images which produce different forms and images in a very brilliant form related to similarity and resemblance whereas comes out sometimes in a mull similar form which the early poets did and competed on, while others did in a sublime forms of similarity while other in reversed way or way of pretending unawareness that raise fascination, enchantment that adds up to similarity. It the image was a sort of figurative (metaphorical). It becomes more fascinating as the metaphor itself is a sort of similarity and because his metaphors are made in a string white politic portraits complete and metegrated in lives and colors, artful and rhetoric comprising melaphor and metonymy.

The Umayyad prince Abd Al Rahman Ibn AlHakam: Crictical Study to his Poetical and Literary Heritage

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Authors: Fawz Suheal Nazzal
Keywords: Abd Al-rahman Ibn Al-Hakam, Prose, Poetry
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 88 - 103

Abstract

This study deals with the poetical and literary heritage of an Umayyad prince Abd ALrahman Ibn AlHakam, the fourth Umayyad poet in Andalusia, which was distributed in many Andalusia sources being not collected in one independent study and because of its stylistic renovation and immortalization of many important terms for a civilization in which the chant of the east meets the beauty of the west in one crucible. This study consists of an introduction and two parts; the introduction handles the biography of Ibn ALhakam and his work that is immortalized in the Andalusian civilization. Also it handles the prominent figures in his royal palace and the relationship between the prince, writers and scientists. The study also deals with his critical views about poetry and poets. The first part handles his prose (signs, address, advice and assonance in flirtation) in a way that connects between contents in their formal mold. The second part handles Ibn Alhakam’s poetry (renovation semblances, technical properties and poetry themes such as filtration, description, wisdom and correspondence).

The Role of Non-Arab Groups in the Anti-Umayyad Movements

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Authors: Amjad Mamdouh Al-Faouri
Keywords: Umayyads, Non-Arab, Opposition
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 104 - 116

Abstract

This study aims at illuminating the role of the Non-Arab groups in the anti-Umayyad Sate movements. It sheds light on a topic that has been longly tackled by the Umayyad sate historians. The finings were that the Umayyads have excluded the non-Arab groups from the state positions regardless of their declaration of Islam. Besides, burdening them with taxes that are imposed as a consequence of their antagonism for the Umayyads. Basically, historians believe that the Umayyad state was a racist Arabic state which underestimated the non-Arab groups’ role and gave privileges to the Arab tribes.

The Concept of Innovation and its Relationship with Heritage in Adonis Productions

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Authors: Maha Mahmoud Al.utoom
Keywords: Creativity, Heritage, The New, Modern, Modernity, Innovation, Followers, Originality, Time, Timeless, Clarity, Mystery.
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 117 - 127

Abstract

Adonis is considered as one of the most important symbols of modernity in the Arab poetry and criticism. He presents through his critical and poetry books a concept of integrated innovation associated radically with time: past, present, and future, hence showing the importance of reading this concept in Adonis products in relation to heritage in general, and especially the Arab heritage. Although many studies addressed this issue, but in general they were divided into two categories either to stand by Adonis and support his thesis or stand at the end of the spectrum and accused him before discussing his ideas and opinions. This study has attempted to consider the position of the Adonis from heritage, and the foundation of the theory of creativity of Adonis, which is based on this heritage and leave it at the same time.

Dictionary of Public Life Terms: Notion, Preparation and Execution

en
Authors: Suha Fathi Asa'd na'jeh
Keywords: Dictionary of Public Life Terms, The Living Language, The Lexicographic Industry
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 128 - 141

Abstract

The Dictionary of Public Life Terms in Jordan has been an important step in the development of Arab lexicology, which derives its significance from following the documentary approach based on a direct recording of a particular language expressions used in Jordan. It gains further significance from the uniqueness of its use of the term “Public Life Terms”, its difference from the use of the term, “Colloquial Terms” as well as from its consistency with the use of the term “The Language of the Elite”. This research has, therefore, endeavored to explore this new direction in Arab lexicology and to analyze it systematically and in accordance with the general theory of human languages lexicology. It has highlighted both the positive and the negative aspects as part of an attempt to produce a critical reading that calls for the need for a lexicological methodology that would be free of semantic and dialectical interfusion, the duality of organization, negligence, arbitrary use of Arabized and standard Arabic terms, neglecting of the lexical etymology of some words and the subjective view of lexical definitions.

Mohammad Jamal Amros Poetry for Children: An Objective Study

en
Authors: Ibrahim Al-Kofahi
Keywords: Mohammad Jamal amro, Children Poetry
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 142 - 161

Abstract

The research discusses one of rich experiments in the children literature as a distinguished type of literature in the modern times. It is Mohammed Jamal Omro's experiment. This research goes deeply inside the poetic works of his to read and shed and lights on the different dimensions of his works contents, style, and the artistic efficient means. The study begins with a short preface about the children literature concepts. The study is divided into two chapters; the first one is about the writer's biography and his efforts in the field of children literature. The second chapter is about his poetic experiment. This part gives a short description of his published poetical works. The second chapter is divided into two points; the first one is about the basic contents of his poetic experiments, the second point is about the most important artistic and style characteristics of the poet his expressions about these contents in addition the method of contacting with the recipient/ children.

Ibn Kamal Basha's the Message of "Taqseem Al-Majaz" "An Investigation and Study"

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Authors: Jabr Ibrahim Barri
Keywords: Al-Majaz, Ibn Kamal Basha
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 162 - 176

Abstract

The massage of "Taqseem Al-Majaz" which was composed by Ibn Kamal Basha (940h) is an important issue and essential core for authors. It hasn't got new subject for Arabic eloquent students, but it represents an invitation to come out of the (Skaky School) which controls the eloquent lesson with its philosophical tendency and its logical braches. He offered two newly parts about imagination. He pretends that he individualized the first one and invented the second one. My task in this massage was divided into two parts. The study which includes translation for the author's curriculum vitae, scientific position, his authoresses and an imagination brief study for the component of the massage. Then, it includes the achievements of the massage according to the approach which I explained its steps in the introduction.

The Army of Al-’a'nieh Imara in the Era of Prince Fakher – Al-Deen Al-Manni the Second (999H / 1590AD – 1044 H /1634 AD)

en
Authors: Ibrahim Ahmad Al-Shyyab
Keywords: Army, Fakher-Al-Deen Almanni the second, weapons, military Divisions
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 177 - 188

Abstract

The army of Prince Fakher Al-Deen Al-Manni has played an important role in preserving the security of Lebanese political authority in a certain era. Prince Fakher Al-Deen has given great care to his army to guarantee the unity of the country and to achieve a high level of security and stability in his country in the "Shouf" region. He also supported his army to enable the soldiers to face the "othmani" Forces which were waiting for the opportunity to defeat him. All the previous factors encouraged the prince to support his army with its needs to accomplish his political ambitions. This indeed succeeded because of his wise and farsighted policy represented through holding agreements with some Lebanese districts to support him. He also held some agreements with European countries to provide his army with weapons and experience. Al-Manni's dream of having a strong "Imaret" and a powerful army was supported by many factors including his traditional inherited leadership of "Al-shouf" region. Another factor was that othmani forces weren't available most of the time in "Belad Al-sham" so he didn’t have to pay the money imposed on him on time. This caused the othmani leaders to disregard him for a period of time, which gave him the opportunity to support his army and his young Imaret.

The Troubled Woman in Sameera Azzam's Stories

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Authors: Osama Yousef Shihab
Keywords: Troubled woman, stories, Sameera Azzam, Palestine, the poor
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 189 - 202

Abstract

This research tries to highlight the role of a pioneer storywriter in Jordan and Palestine; namely, Sameera Azzam. I have discussed five of her story collections; Little Things, The Clock and the Human Being, The Big Shadow, Other Stories, and Al-Eid from the West Window. In discussing these early collections, the researcher has focused on studying the image of the troubled and suppressed woman in the Arab world in general and in Palestine in particular. Contrary to what the researcher expected from Azzam's stories, and unlike other stories by Azzam where she concentrated on the events and pains of Palestine, in these collections, Azzam did not focus on these events and pains. Most of Azzam's stories are about the suffering of the poor, how hard it is for them to make a living, and the injustice they experience. Her stories are also about women's feelings, suppressed desires and emotional deprivation. Azzam excelled in analyzing deeply the woman's character and manifested clearly her worries. Azzam used feminine expressions in most of her stories which are about the woman as a beloved, mother, torn asunder, and prostitute, where she used daring language if the time and place of these stories are taken into consideration. In addition, Azzam focused on the woman as a teenager and the woman who has been expelled from her homeland. The researcher has studied the situation of the troubled woman in these stories, but this cannot be done away from the woman's partner, the man. The researcher also had to focus on the hardships faced by the middle and lower social classes. Moreover, the researcher has concentrated on the patriotic side and the suffering of the Palestinians in Azzam's stories although some critics deny this side in her stories.

The Modified Architecturally and Churches during the Umayyad Period in Jordan: Yamoun Church as a Prototype

en
Authors: Nizar Tarshan
Keywords: Churches, Modification, Umayyad, rebuilt, Syria, Yamoun, Jordan
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 203 - 212

Abstract

This study aims at clarifying and analysing the Architectural and functional modification of the churches during the Umayyad period and earlier. The main example is Yamoun church in northern Jordan, which is compared with many other churches in Jordan such as churches Bidiyah in Ajloun, Khirbat Mukhayat, churches Mafraq and Rehab and many more others in northern Jordan and many more than in the context of the search. Focus was on studying the circumstances and reasons which led to the amendment of these churches in line with the requirements of the population in those locations where these buildings were built and studied with various historical backgrounds, which contributed effectively to bring about such changes. Research has taken into archaeological and historical approach because of the importance of addressing these studies in Islamic civilization. Two frames interconnected at the level of the curriculum.

Saracens and their Relations with the Two Empires, Roman and Byzantine (During the third and Forty Centuries)

en
Authors: S. Nuaimat , M. Nasrat
Keywords: Saracens, Byzantine Empire, Bedouin Tribes, Byzantine Historians
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 213 - 231

Abstract

This Paper investigates the meaning of the word Saracens and its use in Roman, Byzantine and Syriac historical sources in addition to their relation with Roman and Byzantine empires during third and fourth centuries AD. Also, it deals with the development of the meaning of the word during successive historical periods and inner and outer limes. The research deals with description of Byzantine Historians to the Saracens and the spread of Roman and Byzantine forts and military units along the eastern border from Syria in the north to Wadi Al-Hasa in the south.

The Globalization Impact on the Arabic Language

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Authors: Walid Al-Oeimer
Keywords: Arabic language , Globalization , Internet, Computer
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 232 - 250

Abstract

This study aims at investigating the concept of globalization in terms of the cultural aspect, relevant to Arabic Language. It also examines how globalization, as a western product, affects the spreading of Arabic Language in the world or curtails it for the benefit of other languages in the world. In so doing, it, moreover, explores Arabic Language nowadays in accord with its spreading and the number of its users throughout the world, It also investigates the nature and the cultural, political and economical senses of the concept. It, furthermore, addresses the positive and negative effects of globalization on the spread of Arabic Language as compared with other international languages. In conclusion, the negative effects are apparently more dominant than the positive ones.

The Stereotypes Jordanian Students have about France and French People

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Authors: Nahed Emaish , Najeeb Rabadi
Keywords: Stereotypes; Teaching civilization; French as a Foreign Language
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 251 - 258

Abstract

This paper aims at studying the utilization of stereotypes in classes that teach French as a foreign language, particularly in Jordan. The paper begins by defining the concept of stereotypes, especially in relation to its diminishing, yet still prominent, role in teaching students about a culture different from their own. Against the backdrop of these observations, the paper analyzes the answers of two questions about the types of stereotypes that students in the Department of French at the University of Jordan have about the French people and France. The two questions of the study, administered before and after the students had taken a course on French civilization, showed that most students maintained some stereotypes that are considered to be very strong since they have been ingrained from a young age about French people, but they also added new impressions .