Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 38, Issue 3

The Spatial and Population Centrography of the Governorates of Al-Ahwar Region in Southeastern of Iraq

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Authors: Abbas Fadhil Al-sa'adi
Keywords: –Ahwar Region, Centrography, The Spatial and Population Centrography, Spatial Variation
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 1 - 13

Abstract

The aim of the research was to Determine the spatial & Population Centrography in Al-Ahwar region (the marshes and swamps) in Iraq and its governorates. The sites of the population Centrography are found in the places which the population distribute equally around them in any governorate. The Population centrography in two governorates of Maysan & Thi Qar tends to the southwestern or northwestern of the spatial centrography, towards the highland to be far from the effect of water flood. while Al-Basrah governorate tends to the northeastern of spatial centrography. toward Shat Al-Arab , far from the desert areas in Qadha Al-Zubair. The Population centrography in Al-Ahwar, in general, tends to the south of the spatial centrography, to the highland also. There were also no changes for the population centrography during the period 1997 – 2007. The statistical study concludes that the population centrography of the Al-Ahwar region are more dispersal than the spatial centrography. There is no doubt that projects establishing in Al-Ahwar region will help removing the sites of its population centrogaraphy. The research also concludes that studying population centrogaraphy in a populated area is more useful than in a deserted area & Al-Ahwar region.

Lynch’s American Expedition to Jordan River Valley and the Dead Sea (1847 \ 1848)

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Authors: Ibrahim AL-Shraah
Keywords: Lynch, Jordan River, Dead Sea
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 14 - 29

Abstract

This study seeks to identify the beginnings of American interest in the Jordan River basin (Palestine and Transjordan) in the middle of the nineteenth century, which was manifested in the American Expedition that was led by Officer Lynch. This officer visited Jordan River and the Dead Sea in 1848 for economic, scientific, and religious reason. That visit was so significant because it was the first successful American expedition to the area. Lynch showed great interest in the region and recommended settling Jews in that area.

Dramaturgy Concept Development and Functions in the European Theatre

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Authors: Muayyad Hamzeh
Keywords: Dramaturgy, Dramaturge, Playwright, Repertoire, Litreturical Counselor, Art Director
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 30 - 39

Abstract

Arabic poetry has been connected with wars since the pre-Islamic era. That is why Mohammed Ibn Salam (139 -231 A.H.) attributed the abundance of poetry in certain regions to the outbreak of wars among the tribes in those places. The Anglo american invasion of Iraq and the occupation of Baghdad in 2003 have had such a traumatic impact on Arabs and Muslims, which was reflected in Iraqi poetry during the aggressive war and even before during the siege that had paved the way for the invasion. Then, Iraqi, as well as Arab and non-Arab poets set off describing the lies and fake stories promulgated by U.S.A. and the U.K. to justify the invasion. Hence, the uprising of poets was to expose and condemn the invaders. The tragedy of war and its afflictions have been illustrated in Arabic poetry. When the confrontation between the American invaders and the Iraqi extended for six years, there appeared elegies that bemoaned the loss of Arab dignity and glory on the Iraqi land.

The Experience of Youth and Agedness Expressed in the Poetry and Prose of Usama Bin Munqith Psychosocial Dimensions

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Authors: Basma Aid Al-shareef , Fedaa Mohamad Ghnaim
Keywords: Youth, Agedness, Poetry, Prose, Psychosocial Dimensions
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 40 - 53

Abstract

This study aims at sheding some light on the experience of youth and agedness expressed in the poetry and prose of Usama Ben Munqith. It also caters to compare between the two contradicted stages of his life, the stage of youth and the stage of aging. The first stage shows the great success and the big achievements he made. While the second stage pictures his aging and disability to pursue the great tasks he used to be instructed to do when he was young and his complaining about being useless. I based on Bin-Munqhth’s poetry book (dewan) and his book (al-iitibar) as well as some other resources and references that dealt with different aspects of his life. The study tackles this phenomenon from many aspects and as follows:-  The symptoms of youth and agedness and the Psychosocial Dimensions and the impact reflected in Bin-Munqeth poetry and prose.  The lessons and morals deducted from his experience which are scattered here and there in his book Al Iitibar but is concentrated on at the end of the same book.

Al-Madanee approach in dealing with historical news

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Authors: Amjad Mamdouh Al-Faouri
Keywords: ALMadaini, historians, historical writing
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 54 - 67

Abstract

The beginning of the science of history in the Arab world is associated with the science of Hadith and it derived its first rule from the womb of the science of Hadith in order to indicate the importance of knowing who tells the news before starting the process of writing. AlMadaini is considered the leader of Arab's narrators since he connected between the first narrators who narrated news before Islam and historians of the third century AH\Ninth century AD who developed the process of historical documentation and made history an independent science. Because of breadth and comprehensiveness of his narrations, ALMadaini is known as first historian who developed the schools of news into the historical school. Thus, he gained the trust of the subsequent historians.

Lata Between grammar and use

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Authors: Nasser Ibrahim Al-Nuaimi
Keywords: Lata, Function, Use
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 68 - 77

Abstract

This research revealed the origin of (Lata) and searches in its work (mamoulha) and nature. Also, the research discussed the usage of (Lata) by old and recent researchers. The research showed that ((Lata) is a negative article which means an impossible adverb and also concluded that (Lata) is an independent article and it didn’t work in the sentence (grammatically) and finally its use is very rare.

Global or Provincial: A Reading of Modern English Poets

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Authors: Mukhtar Chaudhary
Keywords: Modern English Poetry; Yeats; Eliot; Auden; Frost; Larkin; Levertov; Global; Provincial; Parochial Interest; Christology; Christian Sensibility; the Other; The Islamic Other; Civilizations; Byzantium; Incarnation; Redemption; Worldview
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 78 - 92

Abstract

This paper establishes the presence of Christian kerygma in modern English poetry. It also challenges the claims of some Western critics who maintain that this poetry is above factious or parochial interests and is, as they allege, universal in outlook. Their claim is shown untenable by documenting the strong affiliation that poets such as Yeats, Eliot, Auden, Frost and some others have with Christianity. To prove the Christian elements in these poets, specific poems are examined and their religious aspects are elaborated. It is found that the life of Christ-his incarnation, immaculate birth, and sacrifice for human redemption-adumbrates the poetic consciousness of these poets. It is further alleged that this poetry promotes a worldview which, in a global society, if it ever comes into existence, will sound like Christian jingoism.

Abstract

This study deals with the relationship between the religion and the state in Burhan Galion, Mohammad Arkon and Ganooshi as a model of contemporary thinkers who tried to shape the traditional foundation of thinking and the static imagination in Arabic thinking through the concept of democracy and secularism in Arabic and Islamic societies. They were able to express their views which have shaken the static thinking which states that "Islam" does not separate between the "religion" and "realm", but it has identified pragmatic secular experience which has not been recognized by the west laws and principles.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate a book of "teaching Arabic to Speakers of Other Languages" intended for the second level in the International Institute for Teaching Arabic Language to Speakers of Other Languages at the University of Jordan, from the point of view of the teachers and students studying it. The aim was to determine the level of preparation of this book and show the strengths and weakness in its preparation, in light of a group of international criteria for publishing educational books. The research extracted these criteria from previous studies, books and researches. The tools were comprised from 57 paragraphs, distributed over 8 areas, after confirming the validity and consistency of the tools. They were implemented with 30 teachers and students. Statistical means were used to analyze the results. Therefore, the study concluded that: The preparation paragraphs were taken from a book for the second level, for a high level, in accordance with the level of criteria upon which the study depended. There were no statistically significant differences between the professors and students in their evaluation of the book for teaching Arabic to speakers of other languages, intended for the second level. The study recommends that it is necessary to re-examine the book, with the goal of evaluating and raising its level, and increasing its effectiveness.

The Turkish-Israeli Relationship in the Shadow of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) Government (2002-2010)

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Authors: S. Habashneh
Keywords: Turkish-Israeli Relationships, Justice and Development Party, Rajab Tayeb Erdoğan, Turkish-Israeli Military Corporation
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 121 - 143

Abstract

The main objectives of this paper were to analyze the main aspects of the Turkish-Israeli relation during the time of the rule of the AKP in Turkey and prospect its future. The study has drawn on analytical-historical methodology and it suggests the following: First, the Turkish-Israeli relation is an important one due to the important influence that both countries enjoy in the Middle East. Second, Owing to Israeli policies (e.g. the support of the separatist Kurdish movements in Turkey and aggression against the Palestinians), this relationship has witnessed stages of ebb and flow after the AKP-with its Islamic background- took power in Turkey. Thirdly, It is noted that time of ebb-and-tension in this relationship has coincided with time of improvement in the Turkish-Syrian and Turkish-Iranian relationship. The tension in the Turkish relation with the last two countries was one of the sources of the Turkish-Israeli accord, what reinforces these relations is the establishment of a Kurdish regime with a tendency towards independence on its borders with Iraq, which is frankly blessed by western and an Israeli support. At the same time, Turkey has an identical view with Syria and Iran regarding this Kurdish issue. Fourth, Despite the political approach of Turkey is oriented towards the Middle East and the Islamic and Arab worlds, this approach has not been reflected on its relations with the west and Israel. However, Turkey puts too much pressure on Israel due to the public pressure on the government of Urdogan. In prospect, tension might continue to characterize the Turkish-Israeli relation from time to time, yet, this tension can be considered pro tem developments that would not affect the deep relation between the two countries which is governed by mutual interests.

Democratic Life in Qatar: Shura Council

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Authors: Khalid Abaalzamat
Keywords: Democratic Reforms
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 144 - 154

Abstract

Few studies have discussed political reform in the state of Qatar. The purpose of this political study is to identify Qatari Shura Council, scheduled for election in 2012, with reference to the current appointed Shura council. The study explains the history of Qatar's Shura councils, the establishment of the new council, its guarantees and conditions. It also evaluates the authorities and tasks of the new council. The researcher opted for a historical and analytical approach in analyzing research mechanism. Qatar's effort in enhancing political participation is a fine step, the study concludes, especially that the items of this constitution were set by the people themselves in a referendum carried out by the government in 2004. Through analyzing a number of legal texts, the study concludes that some of these texts like the Emir's obligatory objection to any decision guaranteed by Article 106 of the Constitution. According to this article, a decision cannot be stopped by the Emir if it was approved by the council's majority which is uncommon in political establishments in Qatar. Other results were achieved.

Jordan's Military and Developmental Role in Oman in 1975 "The Jordanian Military Archive Source"

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Authors: Ibrahim Faour Al-Shraah
Keywords: Jordan's Military and Developmental Role; Oman; Military Archive
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 155 - 176

Abstract

This study addresses an important issue in the context of the relationships between Jordan and Oman, that is, Jordan's military role in assisting Oman to end the threat of the Dhofar revolution, which took place before almost a third of a century ago. The study also highlights the role of the Special Parachute Phalanx 91, which was sent to Oman in early 1975; and the nature of this force and the tasks it carried out. The study also addresses the phalanx's military contributions on the Omani land, such as its role in training Omani soldiers and reducing the risk of the rebels in Dhofar. This mission continued for about six months. On another level, Jordan also sent an engineering brigade to Oman, which contributed to the completion of several development projects, such as economic, social, and military projects. The brigade built military schools, paved roads in the mountains, established airports, and constructed houses for citizens, hospitals and water tanks and so on. Jordan's role was reflected in strengthening the relationships between the Governments of Jordan and Oman. Oman's political regime valued this step, which came from Jordan's National role to assist the Arab brothers when crises arise. This study was mainly based on the documents in the Jordanian military archive, deposited in the General Command of the Jordanian Armed Forces - Directorate of Hostilities. These military documents were significantly used in this study, in addition to other modern resources of personal interviews and newspapers.

Trends in Mean Seasonal and Annual Rainfall Amounts over Jordan

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Authors: Ali A Ghanem
Keywords: Jordan, Rainfall trend, Variability, Annual, Seasonal, Climate
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 177 - 185

Abstract

The seasonal and annual rainfall amounts during the rain seasons 1957/1958-2006/2007 for 13 stations across Jordan were examined to explore any possible trends in the last 50 years. Analysis has revealed that rainfall amounts have changed on a seasonal scale, rainfall amounts have decreased in the autumn season and increased in spring, rainfall amounts in winter increased in the northern part and decreased in the rest of the country, southern and eastern parts. The annual rainfall amounts have increased in the northwestern part of Jordan as in Baqura, Irbid, and Rasmuneef; and decreased in the rest of the country as in Aqaba, Ma'an, and Safawi.

How Can We Describe Childhood Shock for Emmanuel Adely

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Authors: Isabelle Bernard
Keywords: آديلي، الرواية الفرنسية المعاصرة، صدمة الطفولة العصبية، الهجر
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 186 - 194

Abstract

Love me, look at me, make me live under your eyes, this is the petition that the narrative voice of Jeanne, Jeanne, Jeanne (2000) sends to his mother in a monologue obsessive. Taking further the thematic of the quest for love in this third novel, Adely writes a testimony to the border of a brooding psychotic rare emotional power. From his initial emotional trauma, the ‘I’ in search of ties, love and attachment, extracts the right words to tell his trauma: the abandonment by his biological mother of the newborn child that was it 37 years ago. Jeanne is this unknown, unseen, he calls and tries, leaving each page of this account of the absence of hollow cry and his vulnerability, his irritability and anxiety deadly earn a little more space to fill all his world. We propose a tripartite approach to this novel that highlights the unique combination of narrative writing Adely and then presents the neurotic pursuit of a son facing the shortcomings of his pedigree and finally outlines the psychoanalytic aspects of this novel approach to emotional hurts.

The Role of Digital Elevation Model (DEM*) in Geomorphological Analysis of Berien, Jordan

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Authors: Y. Al-Husban , D. Zraigat
Keywords: Berien, Slope, Aspect, Hill Shade, Land Use, Hydrology, DEM.
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 195 - 206

Abstract

This study deals with Berien area in terms of describing the geo-morphological characteristics, like: slope by degrees, aspect, hill shade, and View shade, in order to classify the land uses as well as to define the surface hydrology such as: watershed patterns. The present study riles on topographic map (TP) Scale 1:25000, using applied (GIS) programs to create digital elevation model (DEM). The key findings are as follows:1-According to the relative height the study area described as high hills.2-Variation in the regression, ranging between flat to extremely steep.3 - The study area divided according to the landforms to multi-geomorphological units, including: valleys, hills, and Cliffs.4- Multi: main and secandary aspect due to topography. 5- Steam order ranged between 1-4.6-Elongation Ratio ranged between 32%-41%.7- According to the previous properties the study area divided to specialized land use, land cover including: agricultural areas, forest areas, and grazing areas.

Binaries: A Study in the Poetry of Mahmoud Darwish

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Authors: Nizar Qbilat , Ali Alshrosh
Keywords: Binaries, Mahmoud Darwish’s, Poetry
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 207 - 214

Abstract

This study aims at reconsidering Mahmoud Darweesh's poetic texts from a critical point of view through studying the structural binary pairs which sometimes conform, thus framing the poetic texts, and some other times oppose, due to the context which Darweesh addresses. Consequently, binary opposition and concordance form the two facets of the human conflict that has not yet reached its end, despite the continuing struggle and strife between the poet and his binary pairs. Therefore, the verses as well as the vision have witnessed repetition, as revealed by some selected poetic texts. Consequently, Darweesh's poetic message has not yet reached the stage where it can unveil vision. Through these poetic texts, the binary pairs reach one answer. One can see the vocabulary as well as reference keep recurring in Darweesh's collection of poems, which make them interact and intermingle irregularly, which in turn raises the question of poetic performance and its literary function.