Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

Beta Version

Please note that this is a beta version which is still undergoing final testing before its official release.


To submit new script click here

Search:

Volume 40, Issue 1

Ramifications of the awakening in the Arab Society: A sociological study based on Arnold Toynbee Theory of Challenge and Response

en
Authors: Ismail Mohammad Al-Zyoud
Keywords: Ramifications, Challenge, Response, Sociology, Rise, Decline.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 1 - 13

Abstract

This study discusses the ramifications of the awakening of the Arab society: A sociological study based on the Theory of "Challenge and Response" by the British philosopher Arnold Toynbee. The study focuses on the response of the Arab society in the previous historic decades versus the response to the challenges which our Arab society is facing at the present time and the interpretation of these challenges. The study accredited the theory of "Challenge and Response" by Arnold Toynbee (1899-1975) as one of the intellectual theories which left its impact on the Arab society. The study also provided a sociological analysis of the indications and the dimensions inherent in the awakening activity throughout our Arab World. The study concluded that the state under which the Arab society is currently living, according to the Toynbee's theory, can be explained in the fact that the Arab nation has undergone several challenges and responses. The most important of these is the first challenge and response manifest in the beginning and the rise of Arab civilization and the process of the formation of society. Some of the reasons for the weakness of the Arab society, according to the Theory of Challenge and Response, were the divisiveness and division of the Arab society, the shortcomings of the ruling class and the shift of the function of this class from an innovative ruling class to a despotic dictatorship. This shift has caused further weakness of the Arab society and has carried society into living in the glories of the past with their political, economic and social achievements throughout history while launching the fundamental change through revolutions (the beginning was in 2011 with what was called the Arab Spring).

The Relations between Sudan and The South of Sudan

en
Authors: Sad'dah Al-Habashnah
Keywords: International relations, International interests, Agreements, Sudan
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 14 - 32

Abstract

This study aims at investigating the relations between Sudan and the South of Sudan, focusing on the core issues that defines the relations between the two countries. The study have mentioned the civil war in the South of Sudan since 1963 and mentioned the peace agreements between the two countries and then the separation which is the major event that didn't stop the disagreements between them.

Remediation for /r/ in Arabic: A Phonetic- Remedial Study

en
Authors: Jihad A. Al-Aryfi , Ibtisam H. Jameel
Keywords: Articulation Disorders, Traditional Approach, Establishment, Generalization, Maintenance, Phonetic Placement
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 33 - 53

Abstract

This article describes different techniques in treating the misarticulation of the /r/ phoneme in the Arabic language. It suggests a treatment model that includes theoretical and practical guidance steps. The suggested model addresses the /r/ phoneme whether it is deleted, distorted, or substituted with another sound. The investigators have used the descriptive analytical approach as the base of the study and they have tracked different cases of misarticulation during 16 years of working with patients including children and adults. The investigators have benefited from the experience of 20 Speech Language Pathologists who work with misarticulation patients in different settings and who have filled a questionnaire regarding how they addressed the misarticulated /r/ during therapy. The utilized results of the questionnaire have contributed to the practical and theoretical frames of the presented and suggested model of therapy.

Garmmar Impact on text cohesion

en
Authors: Abed Bouhadi
Keywords: Grammar, Cohesion, Text
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 54 - 65

Abstract

Cohesion is a principle feature that characterizes a text, for without it a text cannot stand alone. Linguists agree on the importance of cohesion in drafting and constructing a text; however, a team among them limits it to the stylistic and semantic side, passing the dependence on distinctive grammar. While, in fact, the manifestations of linguistic consistency are not without impact of grammar, that moral relations and grammatical links are those that distinguish it from other communication units. Text cohesion, with its clear reflected and diverse manifestations, takes many forms most appropriate to stylistic and semantics. Despite its discoloration in its coherent nature, it cannot be achieved without its dependence on grammatical structure rules. Grammar represents a solid base to text cohesion; all is based on its tools and structures. One cannot imagine a well structured text with strong tight parts without taking proper grammatical structures as a core base. Hence, grammar has a prominent impact in the availability of scripts, even if it does not need formality that cannot be overcome in the formulation and building aspects of consistency. Indeed, this multi-faceted aspect of text is to ensure the text its pragmatic use. This requires knowledge of areas of use of the various tools and means.

The Role of Digital Social Networks in formation of Public Opinion Trends among Students

en
Authors: Abdulkareem A. Al-Dbaysi , Zuhair Y. al-Tahat
Keywords: Digital social networking, Public Opinion, Public Opinion Factors, Theory of Usage and Satisfaction.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 66 - 81

Abstract

The objectives of the study are summarized to know the rates of Jordanian university students’ usage to the digital social networks, and finding out the factors that influencing the formation of public opinion trends among students, and the level of social networking competition for traditional media adoption as sources of news and information. The two researchers used the descriptive approach by designing questionnaire to survey the views of the students, and gathering facts and information and then analyze it. The study concluded several findings that highlighted the widespread use of social networking among students, and these networks have become a source of access to news and information that would influence the formation of public opinion, and compete with traditional media and online journalism. Some information resulted positively, such as strengthening the national spirit and loyalty, and others negatively, such as an attempt to link current events in the neighboring countries with the internal situation, doubting the credibility of local and semi-official media broadcast, stirring up demonstration or protest or strike, and using the religious factor to provoke the behavior of the community or calling to boycott all activities and events which government urged to.

The Impact of the University Environment and Civic Culture Among Students Al al-Bayt University and the University of Jordan: a Comparative Field Study

en
Authors: Mohammed al Mogdad , Sayl al Syrhan , Hany Akorshidh
Keywords: University Environment, Civic Culture, University Students
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 82 - 105

Abstract

The study aims to indicate the role of the university environment in influencing the thinking and behavior of students in the universities, through the measurement of the main tools to learn and interact with students in undergraduate, which serves as the effects on the formation of a civic culture of the students, is the curriculum, activities and various programs, and university administration and the application of regulations and instructions of the hand, and influences public policy and community values of the state of Jordan on the other. And to identify, the study has two parts: theoretical and applied. Where the review of vocabulary affecting the attitudes of students in the formation of culture, civil, and use the case study of a field to the students of the University of Al al-Bayt and the University of Jordan included to measure the opinion of the students through a sample of (866) students from different faculties of Humanities and Social and science colleges in the universities. The study found a number of conclusions and recommendations is most important, the existence of statistically significant differences in most of the aspects that influence thought and behavior of students, especially in colleges humanity and an average account ranged between (25.2) to (98.2) by averages which have been extracted with transactions for the stability of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha). Overall, the results were positive, but it was higher when compared to students of the University of Jordan University of Al al-Bayt. The study proved the hypothesis that was based upon the existence of a positive relationship in the scientific methods and conditions employed by public universities - as institutions teaching - and between the development of civic culture among students and thus the ability to community interaction. Finally, the study recommends that the interaction of the university administration at all levels has to do with relational management in promoting the talents of students and develop their talents and aspirations, which requires open channels of dialogue and interaction with students constantly.

Abstract

This research is concerned with the study and analysis of Britain’s position towards the slave trade during the late 18th century until the 1880s in general, and particularly the trade activities in Hejaz, specifically in the port of Jeddah. The research is based on a study of one of the reports issued by the British consulate in Jeddah1880 A.D, which reveals the British standpoint regarding slave trade during the specified period. The report discloses an attempt by William Burrell, the British acting Consul in Jeddah, to bring his government’s attention to certain issues needing be dealt with according to British interests in the region. This report is considered an important resource due to the information included within, which includes: slave trade in Hejaz; the main ports on the eastern shores of the Red Sea used in this trade and specifically Jeddah; the stance taken by the Sherif of Makkah, Abdulmutalib bin Ghalib Aal Zayed; the position of the local Ottoman authorities and their employees towards the trade; the deceptions used by the slave traders to avoid the confiscation and liberation of the slaves following the strict measures in Sudan intending to limit the activities of the slave trade in Hejaz, and specifically Jeddah; and finally, the role played by the British Consulate to prevent this trade.

Identity and Taboos in Egyptian novelist, Rauf Mass’ad’s novels: Baydat Anna’amah and Mezaj Attamaseeh

en
Authors: Sumaya Suleiman al-Shawabkieh , Sabha Ahmad Alkam
Keywords: Identity, Taboo, Egyptian novelist, Rauf Mass’ad, Baydat Anna’amah, Mezaj Attamaseeh, setting of the narrator.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 123 - 138

Abstract

This study aims at revealing the political, religious, and sexual taboos in the world of the Egyptian novelist, Rauf Mas’sad, through his novels: Baydat Anna’amah and Mezaj Attamaseeh. By violating the veils of taboos, the narrator exceeded the patterns of societal values, and those of the traditional artistic structures while soaring in the worlds of the body in search of his marginalized self, and his lost identity. He predicts a world of chaos which is full of identity conflicts, repression, oppression, exclusion, hardship, extremism, and violence. This research attempts to emphasize the relationship between the narrator and the text where what is public is mingled with what is personal, what is realistic is tangled with what is imagined, what is sensed with the political, the narrative with the biographic without any system or sequence, but with flashbacks, referrals and predictions which scatter throughout the texts.

The Fourteenth Jordanian Parliament of 2003, the Reality of Elections, Level of Participation and Representation

en
Authors: Ahmad Kh. Al-Afif
Keywords: Jordanian Parliament, Elections, Level of Participation
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 139 - 159

Abstract

The study deals with the analysis of the national and international political in which the 14th Jordanian Parliament was elected in 2003. The study looks at this complicated situation from two different angles: economical and political. The study is an attempt to light the capability of the Jordanian state to realise the basic components of its political system in a way that guarantees continuity and can sustain the survival of the state. It also studies the effect of this situation on electoral behavior which has always been characterized at different levels of the society with frustration and carelessness and a negative attitude towards parliamentary councils. The study also seeks to analyze the factors effecting the level of representation in this council which was in favor of tribal powers in the first place, which exceeds the level of representation of political parties. This is due to the laws and regulations of the election process and the tribal nature of the society on one hand, and due to the failure of the political parties in formulating an election manifesto that can win the trust of the society.

Regional Instability and the Modernization Theory within the Euro- Jordanian Partnership Context

en
Authors: Walid K. Abu-Dalbouh
Keywords: The European Union, Partnership, Free Trade Area, Stability, Economic Integration, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, World Trade Organization, Modernization, Regional Stability
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 160 - 172

Abstract

This study has examined the relations of the Euro-Arab cooperation and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership in particular since its inception in 1995. As far as Jordan is concerned, the paper concludes that the key shortcomings and limitations of the EU’s foreign policy towards its southern Mediterranean flank was and remains to reside mainly in the lack of its consistent and balanced cooperation policy especially as far as political dimension of the cooperation is concerned. The study perceives that regional instability as such appears a major determinant factor of Jordan’s economic development and growth. In fact, such external factors seem, to high extent, to influence most of the main components embedded within the nature of the Association Agreement (i.e. accumulation of origins). For example, foreign direct investment and regional economic integration which are conceived as the engine for economic development are becoming profoundly challenged by the continued deteriorated regional instability. Hence, based on the empirical analysis and findings, the study as a result deduced that principles which capitalized on economic development as a prerequisite to political development – with special reference to Modernization theory- fails to explain and to interpret the ultimate objectives of the EU cooperation policy towards Jordan culminated mainly with the Euro-Jordanian Partnership.

Ibn Khaldoun: Le Printemps arabe des sciences sociales et humaines

en
Authors: Mahmoud Dhaouadi
Keywords: Précurseur, La Muqaddima, nouvelle science, al-assabiyya, sociologie historique
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 173 - 182

Abstract

Cet essai vise à présenter un bref portrait d’Ibn Khaldoun; le penseur arabo-musulman du Moyen Age (1332-1406) considéré comme le précurseur des sciences sociales et humaines à travers toute l’histoire du monde . Il était très critique à l’égard de la méthodologie des historiens musulmans. Ceci avait motivé Ibn Khaldoun de réformer la méthodologie de l’histoire en inventant sa Nouvelle Science (Ilmu al umran al bashari): la science de la civilisation et la société humaine .Il s’agit d’une science de perspective sociohistorique. C’est–à-dire l’étude des données sociales qui donneraient ou ne donneraient pas une crédibilité aux événements historiques de se produire en réalité. Pour Ibn Khaldoun, pour être un bon historien il faut être d’abord un bon sociologue. C’est dans un esprit sociologique et interdisciplinaire qu’Ibn Khaldoun avait rédigé son fameux livre (La Muqaddima) où ses observations et ses analyses des phénomènes sociaux et autres dans les sociétés arabo-musulmanes montrent qu’il était un précurseur crédible des sciences sociales et humaines. Sa construction et son bon usage de son concept central al-assabiyya (l’esprit du corps) prouve sa grande originalité qui lui permettait d’être un grand sociologue plusieurs siècles avant August Comte.

Identity in Naomi Shihab Nye: The Dynamics of Biculturalism

en
Authors: Wafa A. Alkhadra
Keywords: Hyphenated Identity, Biculturalism, American Literature, Cosmopolitanism, Postmodernism, Arab American Writers, Double-consciousness.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 183 - 192

Abstract

The study examines Naomi Shihab Nye's position on biculturalism, which is viewed as both complex and straightforward, as reflected in many of her poems, especially those pertaining to her dual heritage: the Arab-American; and some of her interviews and prose works. The basic premise, on which the study is built, is that while there are some anxieties or tensions in the world that Nye depicts, regarding her dual heritage, Nye is largely not only comfortable with biculturalism, and with hyphenated-identity, but celebratory of it. One reason behind this is Nye's postmodernism (a movement which comes to recognize and celebrate bi- and multiculturalism); another is Nye's cosmopolitanism, which is perhaps the large context of her biculturalism

The Interpretation of English Conditional Sentences by Arabic Native Speakers

en
Authors: Mohammad Al-Khawalda
Keywords: conditionals, tense, mood, Arabic, wish, if-clause
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 193 - 200

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to investigate Arabic native speakers interpretation of English conditional sentences and to find out the reasons behind that. Conditional sentences are considered one of the most difficult issues for nonnative speakers of English. They form an obstacle for both learners and teachers. The complexity of conditional sentences comes from the fact that they contain two clauses to express complex meaning using complex structure. Moreover, generally, the students spend their time learning the three main types of conditional sentences, i.e. if she comes, I will leave; if she came, I would leave; if she had come, I would have left. Consequently, they are not aware of many other variations within conditional sentences. One hundred subjects enrolled in the test. All were third year students majoring in English. Ten conditional sentences were given to them and they were asked to decide whether these sentences are grammatical or not and to correct the ungrammatical ones. It turns out that the students are not aware of such variations in conditional sentences.

Arab Revolutions of 2011: An Explanatory Model

en
Authors: Zaid Eyadat , Gwendolyn Schaefer
Keywords: Arab Revolution, Arab Regimes' Policies, Theoretical Framework.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 201 - 214

Abstract

This paper provides a theoretical framework and elements of a causal model to explain the Arab revolutions occurred in 2011(1). The main thesis of the model is that Arab regimes’ policies- in terms of their inherent nature, structure, and outcomes- created a certain individual and collective psychological makeup which, in turn, has transformed the rational calculating modalities for both individuals and groups. Essentially, there are patterns of ordering preferences and types of strategic interactions, both individually and collectively. The aforementioned components of the thesis are elaborated as follows: The regimes’ policies and their outcomes represent the macro-level of analysis, the individual rational calculations and corresponding decisions pertain to the micro-level, and the impact of the psychological makeup on calculations and preferences provides for the bridge between the two modes of analysis, the link being the notion of dignity. Drawing from diverse sources and theories, the model attempts to bring the notion of dignity into political science analysis, claiming that it is the only proper explanatory link between the rigidity of structuralism and the justification of agency.