Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 40, Issue 2

The Discourse of Woman in The Holy Koran

en
Authors: Hala H. Beedas , Fatma M. Al-Elaimat
Keywords: Discourse; Linguistic Discourse
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 1 - 22

Abstract

This research attempts to investigate the discourse of women in the holy Koran, and shed light on the aims of their discourse, and the situations in which it was set by “woman’s discourse”, we mean the speeches that the woman delivered or were addressed in. In the context of language study, the essence of the discourse and its characteristics cannot be explained unless phonological, morphological, syntactical and semantic significances are stressed. The examples of women in this study are: Um Emran, Lady Marian (may peace be upon her), Asia (the spouse of pharaoh), Um Mousa and Bilkees). The research reveals some of the sublime Oratory styles of these women, especially at the linguistic level. We hope that the reader would find additional value in the discourses original through this research.

The Role of Structural Linguistic Criticism in the Interpretation of the Text Codification

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Authors: Omar Abdullah Al Anbar
Keywords: Structural Linguistic Criticism, Text Codification, Text Semiotics, Litrary Criticism Model.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 23 - 34

Abstract

Textual authority is mainly based on the textual relations which govern the systems and powers of the text. These relations produce the semantic content of the text and regulate its codification. The text relies on the gatherings its components to produce a semantic content in a particular structural organization rather than others. The Textual authority controls the unified semantic content according to a dynamism that opens the way for a semantic exchange to construct the structure of the text. Textual authority is composed of the following aspects and dimensions: Chapter One: The Role of Structural Linguistic Criticism in the Interpretation of Text Codification. Chapter Two: Structural Linguistic Criticism and Understanding Text Semiotics. Chapter Three: The Literary Criticism Model.

KAIROUAN - Its Military and Scientific Role

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Authors: Sahar A.M. Al-Majali
Keywords: Kairouan, The Maghreb, Proliferation of Arab-Islamic influence
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 35 - 49

Abstract

The research deals with the city of Kairouan: the objective of its establishment, its origin, development, prosperity, and its historic role as the first base of Islamic ascendance in the Al- Maghreb, which formed the political as well as cultural capital since the beginning of the Arab-Islamic influence in Al-Maghreb. The research focuses on the role of Kairouan, after its prosperity, to spread the Arab-Islamic culture in Africa, and the dissemination of Islamic tenets in the Orient as well as in the West. It also deals with a multitude of eminent scientists and scholars who belonged to Kairouan, and were outstanding intellectuals in Islamic science, the Arab social and astronomical sciences, medicine and other fields, who strove hard to acquire knowledge in the Libraries of Kairouan, especially Bayt Al-Hekmah- the House of Wisdom. Kairouan attracted hundreds of Muslim students from the East as well the West Islamic world. The research also highlights Kairouan relations and its links with the centers of other Islamic countries. These links support the view and the underlying idea of this research that Kairouan played a vital and broad role in spreading the Arab-Islamic culture and science in the Al- Maghreb, and in other Muslim countries such as Al- Hijaz, Iraq, Belad Ash-Sham-the Levant- and Andalusia.

The Downfall of Andalusian Cities in The Andalusian Poetry

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Authors: ?menah Suleiman Al Badawi
Keywords: The Andalusian Cilties, The Downfall, The Immigration.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 50 - 61

Abstract

Obviously, the downfall of Andalusian cities caused people a lot of apprehension, fear, anxiety and disturbance. This very downfall resulted in economic hardships and that’s due to the high cost of living, plundering, and the lack of food to the extent that people were impelled to live corpses. Besides diseases spreaded everywhere. Consequently, there was an increase in the number of refugees and immigrants seeking for shelters , security and protection. Thus, "the waves" of the internal immigration increased particularly towards the Kingdom of Granada. It is noted also that the inhabitants of a certain city left it as soon as it fell down in the hand of the Spanish, and they were forced to move into another city if fallen down again, as if they were quitting Al-Andalus bit by bit and eventually forever. This study, hereby, aims to investigating the psychological meanings like fear and apprehension which were haunted by the Andalusian people as portraited by the Andalusian poetry in two stages: the first is during the time of the city siege and then its downfall , and the second is after the time of quitting the city itself. It aims also to investigate the reflections of their internal psychological experiences on their behaviors in the new reigns they left to lived in.

The Trends of Young People on Drugs Field Study in Governorate of Ma’an

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Authors: Basem Al-Twaysi , Mohammad Al-Nasrat , Abdulrazaq Al-Ma’ani , Basheer Kraishan
Keywords: Drug, Trends in Youth, Local Communities, Ma'an Governorate.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 62 - 78

Abstract

The aim of this study is to identify the trends of young people on drugs in the Governorate of Ma'an in southern Jordan, and detect the features of the dominant culture in the interpretation of this phenomenon, and the awareness to get rid of it among this social group. The importance of the study comes from the fact that the targeted community is considered one of the bordered communities in the past which was a transit area for drugs, and the need to move in the studies of drugs from the national to local community level. The study was conducted on a sample of (6) communities and its size is (538) young people. This study reached to the results that most of the drug users were unemployed (26.6%), and university students (12.1%). The most trusted people by youths in reducing the spread of drugs are religious men, anti-drug department and school teachers, and one of the most effective ways in youth's view in reducing the spread of drugs is to apply strict law against drug dealers and pushers.

Applied Linguistic in Arabian Heritage: Al-Jahiz as a Model

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Authors: Jasem A. Jasem
Keywords: Jahiz, Heritage, Applied, Language
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 79 - 98

Abstract

Applied linguistics is concerned with learning and teaching languages, and how to get benefit from educational theories in language teaching. Applied linguistics deals with many topics such as psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, translation, teaching languages, contrastive analysis and error analysis, common words, educational grammar, language testing, discourse analysis, lexicography, language policy, language planning and others. Al-Jahiz had discussed most of these topics precisely. He discussed about psycholinguistics and dealt with many issues such as; language acquisition, sign language, animal language, and speech diseases its reasons and remedy. He also discussed the topic of silence which is one of the sociolinguistics issues. He explained that translation is a difficult and impossible task especially with respect to the Quran and poetry. Teaching languages to Arabs and non-Arabs was one of the topics he dealt with. Hypothesis of contrastive analysis was explained carefully by him as well, such as: language interference, prediction and using aid to reduce language interference. He also spoke on error analysis, such as: kind of errors, its causes (social, psychological and organical) and pedagogy. Common words were of his interest, he discussed them widely and mentioned their causes and conditions to be widely common and useable. Finally; he explained the very important topics which is the grammar, and how to make it easier to learners and simplification it to learners.

Perception of First Year Students at the University of Jordan to Climate Change

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Authors: Nazeeh Almanasyeh , Numan Shehadeh
Keywords: Climate Change, Air Pollution, Perception
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 99 - 107

Abstract

Climate change is considered these days as one of the facts of life; Its negative impact is being felt in many parts of the world. It is widely believed that if the rate of air pollution continues as it is, or accelerates as a result of world population increase and the rapid growth of urban centers….etc, the impact of climate change will become more dangerous. It is widely believed that individual's perception of climate change shapes his behavior and impacts the measures of adaptation he undertakes to adjust to it. Therefore, this study attempts to analyze the perception of first year students at the University of Jordan to climate change.

Al-Salt's Commercial Relations with Damascus (Al-Sham) and Palestine During the Period from 1298 Hijri / 1880 to 1332 Hijri / 1914

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Authors: Shadia H. Al-Odwan , Suhaila S. Al-Shalabi
Keywords: Al-Salt's Relations, Al-Sham and Palestine, Al-Salt's Religions Court
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 108 - 128

Abstract

This study focuses on the city of Al-Salt's commercial relations with Damascus (Al-Sham) and Palestine during the period from 1298 Hijri / 1880 to 1332 Hijri / 1914 as documaent in the registry of Al-Salt's division of the religious court. The importance of the study stems from the said registry as its main resource of data and information that during the studied period Al-Salt city was in the blowing peak of its economic and commercial activities, which made it a primary distention for a large number of arrivals from different areas not the least Damascus and Palestine. In light of that status, Al-Salt city was a location commercial relations and transactions developed, including sale, purchase, rent mortgage, and loans. This varity of commercial transactions required using the necessary means and mechanisms – for example, surety, commercial notes, agency, and money orders and drafts, to protect te rights of the parties to such relations. The said truncations had been carried out in pursuance to various conventional measurements such as "Alsa'a", and "Althemnyeh'. In addition, various currencies were used as a consideration in the commercial transactions, most notably the golden currencies such as the then Golden Turkish, English, and French Dinners. Siver and Copper-based currencies, such as the "Majedy" Riyal, Piaste, and "Bara" (the smallest unit of the then Turkish currency), were also used.

The Indication Circles to the Poetical Works Dictionary for Abdul Moneim Al Refaei

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Authors: Amal Shafeeq Al-Omari
Keywords: Indication Circles, Abdul Moneim Al-Refaei
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 129 - 147

Abstract

This research is raised to study the poetical works dictionary for the Jordan poet Abdul Moneim Al Refaei .The study has made two requirements in which the first handled both the poet and his poetical work (divan) in clarifying the words and their meaning and relevance whereas the second requirement handled the concept of poetical dictionary then it divided Al Refai's divan into circular semantics where we can find single words from the divan to represent each verbal circle then we can see some examples of Refai's poetry which represent the contents of each circle. Therefore, the circular semantics for his poems were: the religious verbal semantic, the national ones with its burdens and occasions, nature and its sources, wine semantic and emotional one.

Aesthetics of Ugliness in Theater Texts

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Authors: Omar Mohammad Nakrash
Keywords: Aesthetics, Ugliness, Theater Texts, Aesthetics Appreciation
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 148 - 162

Abstract

This research aims to introduce, identify, and discover aesthetics of ugliness in theater texts through studying the concept of ugliness in critical, artistic, and aesthetics studies; this research resorts to the duality of aesthetics and its role in developing artistic appreciation in the reader's zone. This study begins with an introduction that starts with identifying the problem of the study, its research questions, its goals, its significance, its limits, and its justifications. The study then presents the methodology of the research, which contains aesthetics values and principles that contribute in enhancing the usage of aesthetics in theatre texts. This study sheds lights on aesthetics value for ugliness so that it can recognize its significance in theater texts through a modern theater vision in criticism and aesthetics. The study uses samples of plays that support the argument of the study. Due to the broad aspect of this study, the researcher has limited his current study to what serves his purpose, which can be summarized as an attempt to recognize and visualize aesthetics criteria of ugliness value, its aesthetics and critical significance in theatre texts.

The Impact of International changes on the Sources of Threat to Arab National Security after the Cold War: 1990-2010

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Authors: Khalil Hajaj , Mohammad Al-Mogdad , Sayel Al-Sarhan
Keywords: International Changes, National Security, Cold War, Peaceful Settlement of the Arab - Israeli Conflict
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 163 - 177

Abstract

On the bases of the study this study aims at investigating the impact of International Changes on the Arab national security. The study also aims at discussing two other basic related issues that heavily contribute in exploring the impact of international changes on the sources of threat of the Arab national security after the Cold War. The first concerns with the changes in the international political environment after Cold War that have led obviously to critical changes in the shape, pattern and distribution of power "balance-of-power" in the world, in addition to changes in the main principles which govern the International relations. The second issue concerns with the implications and effects of International changes on the sources of threat of the Arab national security. In this study, the researchers have opted for "International System Approach" as one of the methodological tools or approaches that best fit to the topic, research problem, goals, and research questions. It is expected from the study to identify that the International changes have contributed in orienting the perceptions of Arab policymakers" Arab Ruling Elite" and Arab people towards the Arab national security. It also expected from the study to figure out that link of Arab economy with centers of market capitalism has eventually led to a further widening of the gap among Arabs.

Arabic Language Teacher for non-native speakers; Ability and Mastery

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Authors: Basma Al-Dajani
Keywords: Arabic Language Teacher, Non-native Speakers, Ability, Mastery.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 178 - 194

Abstract

This research tries to answer some main questions regarding the qualifications of Arabic Language Teacher for non- native speakers. It also reflects the answers of 40 students at the International Institute of Teaching Arabic for students of other Languages at the University of Jordan in a questionnaire describing the needed teacher in this field.

Child's Theater in Jordan: A Study in Content and Form

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Authors: Abdulazeez Jarwan , Mohammad A. Al-Qudah
Keywords: Child's Theater, The Script
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 195 - 209

Abstract

This study entitled “Child Theater in Jordan 2000-2009 a study in content and from) answers the open-ended question: Are there specialized writers in literary writing aimed for children in Jordan? As it is difficult for the author to familiarize with all types of literature aimed for children; he handled only one partial in an attempt to answer the research question, which is theatrical examination of the text aimed for Jordanian child. The study is limited to a sample of text published from (2000-2009). This study is structured on two bases: the first included the theoretical part of the introducing the concept of the theater, its inception on the international, Arabic and Jordanian’s level, its effect on the child psychologically, educationally and socially. The second is the practical part through studying the scripts and analyzing them. The study concludes the following results:  Some writers create characteristics that have a default like: a flaw in the tongue to drive the receiver’s laughter. Others may include insults in the scripts for the same purpose which in turn will encourage children to use these insults in their lives. Authors may interfere with the director’s work which would confuse the reader (the child) when reading the script.  Another point taken on the Jordanian authors who writes for children is that they do not specify the age group to which they aim their work for.  By looking at the issues handled through texts of the Jordanian child theater we observe that social issues is highlighted and authors are affected by Arabic issues such as the Palestinian case and its consequences with a concentration on the importance of Arabic unity in the face of external threat.  Some authors published a great deal of their plays in one book which may make the child at the first glance to walk away from the book and prevent him from reading it giving the large size، it is preferable to publish plays separately to encourage children to read it.

Human Development Index Measurement in the Jordan Valley

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Authors: Yousef Ahmad Al-idi , Kayed Othman Abu Sabha
Keywords: Human Development, Jordan Valley
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 210 - 229

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Variation of developmental levels among the human settlements of study area by using some demographic, economic, education, health indicators which are extracted from socioeconomic and health data, Those indicators have been used to classify the human settlements into three Development categories high, medium and low. Human Development Index (HDI) that was introduced by UN (1990) was applied in this study, According to this index, the human settlements in the region were grouped into three levels of Development by using local and universal values of indicators. It was appareuc from the study results that the majority of the human settlements were classified within the low level of Development, according to the local values of indicators, meanwhile the majority of the human settlements were classified within the medium level of the human development According to the universal values of the indicators. Also, it was shown that the average life expectancy indicator values were high, and the values of the scientific achievement were very low. several maps have been done, showing the spatial patterns of the development indices for the human settlement in the area study. Recommends to comprehensive development plan, that takes into consideration certain policies to encourage the vocational education, and the investment in the economic sectors, also, to enhance the level of health services and to decrease the illiteracy levels among the population of the reign

Morphological Forbiddens in Arabic Language

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Authors: Suha F. Na’ja , Hassan El-Malkh
Keywords: Morphological Forbiddens, Morphology
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 230 - 249

Abstract

This research seeks to examine morphological forbiddens in order to answer the intriguing question: "how much do morphological forbiddens appear in the works of Arab morphologists in agreement, disagreement, in modern and ancient time?" The research aims at showing the ability of morphological criteria to describe Arabic language in an accurate morphological description, in order to enable the learner of Arabic language to build his/her linguistically morphological ability without weakening Arabic language in the common spoken and written forms, for the morphological forbiddens are built on tracing the language of the Arabs whose speech is standard for formulating morphological rules, taking into consideration the rules of Islamic religion especially the expressions that have religious connotations and respecting the Arabic linguistically traditions, to reject those expressions which are unpermitted in the rules of Arabic language, since the rules of language are based on listening and comparison: Morphological forbiddens embody of balance between these two rules.

The Preventive Role of the University Administration in Reducing Students’ Violence in Jordanian Universities

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Authors: Ahmad M. Badeh , Fadi Soud Samawi
Keywords: University's Administration, Students’ Violence, Jordanian Universities
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 250 - 268

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the requirements of the preventive role of the university administration in reducing students’ violence In Jordain Universities. The sample of the study consisted of (1230) male and female participants selected through random cluster sampling working in students affairs, academic leaders, students council members and university security in public and private universities in the academic year 2012/2013. A questionnaire was developed for the requirements of the preventive role of the university administration containing the administrative, academic, students affairs, university security and obeying rules domains, the researchers calculated reliability and validity. The findings of the study showed that the requirements of the preventive role of the university administration in reducing violence was in an average level and there are significant statistical differences at the level of (α = 0.05) between the means of the participants’ evaluations according to post variable for academic leaders. Moreover, there are significant statistical differences at the level of (α=0.05) attributed to university type in the favor of private universities. Based on the findings of the study the researchers recommended the need of carrying out objective educational programs for the employees and students on the dialogue culture, accepting others, tolerance, and refusing religion, knowledge and regional vandalism. Moreover, developing humans kills in communication within a positive organizational climate within academic freedom, justice, equity and refusing bullying starting form admission polices till the graduation from the university.

Towards An Islamic Ethical Theory

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Authors: Moh'd khair Eiedat
Keywords: Contemporary Arab- Islamic thought, Quran, Ethics, Deliberations, Rules And Regulation (I,e sharia) Public Reason.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 269 - 282

Abstract

This research addresses three fundamental questions: First, what is an Islamic ethical theory? How rules and regulations (i.e sharia) relate to Islamic ethical theory? And finally can ethics and rules be subjected to reason and reasoning? The study identified elements of an ethical frame, which are Quranic based using Mohammed al-Jabiri,s organization of the Quran based on the sequence of revelation. Such organization allows for revisiting relation between ethics and rules from holistic perspective and historically sensitive reading. Using analytical and synthetic method, the following ethical principles, which add up to an Islamic order were identified including: principle of pure faith and sincerity, protection of the weak and vulnerable in society, protection of family, maintaining life and finally protection of community. Under each of these ethical principles relevant rules and regulations were also identified their relationship and-association with such ethical principles were examined. The research argues that rules and regulations in Islam can only have meaning if placed in the context of ethics, Rules and regulations have no intrinsic value of their own. The research also demonstrates that both Islamic ethics and that of rules and regulations are subjected to reason and reasoning. In other words, they both can be part of public deliberation.

The Arab Protest Movements: An Insight into the Present, the Challenges and the Future

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Authors: Omar Hamdan Al-Hadrami
Keywords: Protest Movements, Political Violence, Despotism, Reform.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 283 - 306

Abstract

This research seeks to spotlight the phenomenon of the social protest movement that has swept a number of the Arab States. The researcher relied on the historical points of departure and sociology and political terminology in monitoring these movements so as to describe them and determine their identity, history, components, strength and ability to affect change. This came within a gradual approach starting with the onset of the Arab uprisings and ending with the time of preparing this discourse. The researcher point of departure was that no matter how the political system tries to safeguard itself through despotism, violence and security forces, it will reach a point where it cannot meet the internal challenges, since these arise from one side of the equation of the composition of the state… which means the people. And in order to put this assumption to the test, the researcher posed a set of principles, and adopted the historical approach, the approach of the systems, as well the approach of the decision – maker and political participation. The research concluded that the these protest movements face immense challenges… like the fear of falling into chaos, confusion or the trap of time slackness that cause them to lose momentum. Those in charge of these movements must be vigilant so as not to go outside the desired objectives.

The Political Economy of the Euro-Jordanian Economic Partnership: 1995-2005

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Authors: Walid Khalid Abu-Dalbouh
Keywords: The European Union, Partnership, Free Trade Area, Stability, Economic Integration, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, World Trade Organization, Dependency, Regional Stability, Political Stability.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 307 - 327

Abstract

This study has examined the relations of the Euro-Arab cooperation and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership in particular since its inception in 1995. As far as Jordan is concerned, the paper concludes that the key shortcomings and limitations of the EU’s foreign policy towards its southern Mediterranean flank was and remains to reside mainly in the lack of its consistent and balanced cooperation policy especially as far as political dimension of the cooperation is concerned. So far, the study perceives that the potential economic gains especially in terms of economic growth are seemingly discouraging towards Mediterranean partners with particular reference to Jordan. Despite the EU’s financial assistance, above analysis unequivocally illustrate that financial assistance cannot solely be construed a sufficient factor to attain economic growth and development under the partnership. On the contrary, it tends to reinforce the already state of dependency between the shores of the Mediterranean whereby the economic relations are shaped by the economic interests of the dominant states (e.g. the EU) whilst the development of the dependent states -Jordan in particular- can hardly be attained under such conditions and very much conditioned by the generosity of the dominant/core states.

Mutli-word Constituents of Action in Italian: A Linguistic Investigation

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Authors: Yazeed M. Hammouri
Keywords: Multi-word Constituents, Generative Analysis, Functional Analysis, Grammaticalization, Desemanticization, Italian.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 328 - 336

Abstract

The syntactic notion of multi-word constituents was roughly investigated in the field of the linguistics corpus. By and large, it tackled the synchronic and diachronic language aspects. In the current research paper, this notion was laid down under the purview of the generative and functional perspectives. Firstly, it introduced the definition of the multi-word constituents in addition to the idea of grammaticalization. It elaborated more and more the notion of auxiliarization. Further, it examined whether the auxiliary is an independent syntactic constituent or not, taking into account if this constituent would be universal or a particular subset of the main verbs. Functionally speaking, the current investigation proposed certain solutions to probe into this notion in the light of syntactic standards. It notified definite considerations as regards the processes of grammaticalization.

Effect of Internal and External Variables on Iran's Regional Trends Iran – Arab Relations: A Case Study

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Authors: Mohammad A. Mogdad
Keywords: Internal Variables, External Variables, Orientations of Iran, Iran – Arab Relations
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 337 - 366

Abstract

The study aims to diagnose the impact of changes that have occurred in Iran since the arrival of the Islamic revolution to power in (1979), represented by the variables Interior relevant aspect of the political variable reform and changing the party, in addition to the variables in the economic side, through the study of each of the variable real growth of GDP, and the rate of inflation, unemployment and the size of the economic sectors, as well as variables State in International politics and Security issue. The study also discusses the impact of the changing regional when the Islamic Republic of Iran in the light of relations with the Arab world, especially with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) as a case study. The study is based on the premise that major "The presence of correlation between the impact of internal and external variables that have taken place in Iran and the impact on the orientations of Foreign Affairs", so each of the study employs a systems approach and political career and indicators method. Finally, the study found several key findings is highlighted that "Iran's policy of international influenced by the nature of the direction parallel to the leaders of the regime in achieving powerhouse regional to Iran in line with the objectives of the Islamic Revolution on one side, and the benefits of change in domestic policy and foreign affairs as a result of the demands of reform and the need to pursue levels top serve the general interests of the components of the state, other side". Keywords: Internal Variables, External Variables, Orientations