Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 40, Issue 3

Christian Protestant Fundamentalism The Fundamentalist ‘Self’ and the forms of the ‘Other’

en
Authors: Amer Naser Shataraa
Keywords: Fundamentalism, Protestant, Modernity, Islam. Identity.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 1 - 17

Abstract

This research aims to analyze the movement of Protestant Fundamentalism rises in the United States of America in the early 20 century, who mainly emphasized the literal interpretation of the Bible. Actually, the term Fundamentalism becomes difficult to define and identify because the term has been used to refer to a spectrum that goes all the way from religion to politics. The guiding premise of this research is that Fundamentalism can only be understood as the response of religion to Modernity. More over this research investigate the new self-definition and the new identity that occurs in the protestant fundamentalist movement while facing the challenges of Modernity, and then, the possibility of describing and labeling the movements occurs in other religions and places (such as Islam) as Fundamentalism.

Israeli Psychological Warfare on Lebanon In The 2006 War

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Authors: Ibrahim AbuArgoub
Keywords: HizbAllah, Israeli Army, Lebanon.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 18 - 39

Abstract

On July 17, 2006, the Israeli Army waged a barbaric, savage, and aggressive military and multi-media psychological campaign against HizbAllah and Lebanon, in order to release the two soldiers taken by HizbAllah. This descriptive historical, analytical study aims at shedding the light at the Israeli Psychological campaign in terms of its: organization, objectives, target audience, media, content, types and effects on the Lebanese.The Israeli psychological campaign failed to create a rift between HizbAllah and its supporters as well as between HizbAllah supporters and the Lebanese people. The campaign failed because of the high morale of HizbAllah's fighters, their steadfastness, the unity of the Lebanese home and the continuation of rocket attack on the Israeli home through out of the war. Further more the campaign used lies and disinformation as well as the failure of the military campaign to release the two soldiers. HizbAllah has succeeded in lowering the morale of both the Israeli citizens, as well as, the soldiers. The undefeatable Israeli army was defeated militarily and psychologically at the hand of the smallest armed organization in the world.

Referential Gaps between Arabic and Spanish

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Authors: Hussein Al Duweiri , Asem (Moh’a Amin) Bani Amer
Keywords: Lexical and Structural Referential Gaps, Meaning, Context, Lexical and Structural Ambiguity.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 40 - 45

Abstract

This article aims at investigating the phenomenon of referential gaps (RGs) between Arabic and Spanish languages. The authors refer to the use of certain words or structures that express two or more different meanings, deliberately as such by the author within the same context. The analysis of this phenomenon reveals that the RGs are divided into two types: first, lexical RGs which are formed with a single word without a need to a context to deduce its different meanings: second, structural RGs which need a context to deduce their multiple meanings. The latter type is also divided into two types. The first one is known as abstract ambiguity dissimulation), which contains two distinct meanings in the same context with or without any indication that shows which of the two meanings is intended. The second is called double entendre or adianoeta in which a word has two senses which are both equally effective referentially and pragmatically in order to confuse the interlocutor

Israeli Psychological Operations in Karama Battle 1968

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Authors: Ibrahim Abu Argoub , Hamza Khalil al-Khaddam
Keywords: Psychological Warfare, Psychological Operations, Propaganda, Karama Battle.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 46 - 56

Abstract

On March 21, 1968, the Israeli Army waged two tactical military and psychological campaigns against the Jordanian Army and the Palestinian fighters in order to destroy Fatah faction's military base in Karama town. This analytical study aims at shedding the light at the Israeli tactical psychological operations in terms of its: organization, objectives, target audience, media, content, types, Effects and lessons learned .The study arrived at the following conclusions: the Israeli military used the psychological operations before, during and after the battle. The Israeli psychological tactical operations failed to support the military operations and the destruction of the morale of the fighters and the civilians. The high morale, steadfastness, preparedness, unity of the fighters, and the low morale of the Israeli leaders, officers and soldiers because the heavy casualties and losses were the main causes of the Israeli defeat. So the undefeatable Israeli army was defeated militarily and psychologically at the hand of the smallest and poorly equipped military group and Arab army for the first time since 1948.

The Effect of Western Criticism on Arabic Criticism: "Al- Bah̩th‘an el Jodoor of Khalida Sa‘id As A Sample

en
Authors: Afnan Najjar , Muslih Najjar
Keywords: New Criticism, Effect, Form-meaning binary.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 57 - 67

Abstract

This paper deals with criticism written by Khalida Sa‘id in her book " Al-Bah̩th ‘an el Jodoor " (Looking for Roots) which showed that she was affected by "New Criticism" of Brooks, Allen Tate, Wimsatt and other New Critics. That effect was clear in her way of dealing with indirect expressing poetic meanings, ambiguity, symbols, myths, poetic imagery, poetic innovation, meter and rhyme. The research showed that Sa‘id was moderate in her opinions and was not literal. She dealt with New Criticism in a special way with a special concentration on "form" and "meaning". Form - meaning binary was a central point in her criticism according to the arab critical environment, which was far from comprehensive way in criticizing poetry, or this binary was Sa‘id's way to prove methodology for her criticism.

Al-Farabi Paper in the Eloquence of the Arab Tribes

en
Authors: K. Makableh , A. Makableh
Keywords: Alfarabi, Paper, Content.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 68 - 79

Abstract

In his books Almuzher and Al-iktirah, Suyuti cited a text that he attributed to Abu Nasr Al-Farabi. Researchers know this text as Al-Farabi Paper. This paper presents the eloquence of the Arab tribes, and distinguishes them from each other in this area. Some modern researchers have expressed different opinions concerning the attribution of this paper. Some of them confirmed its attribution and content. Others expressed doubts concerning its content and denied its attribution to Abu Nasr Al-Farabi. The present study attempts to study and investigate the paper to find out the truth concerning the attribution of this paper to its auther Abu Nasr Al-Farabi. Moreover, the paper will be studied and investigated in terms of ideas and content. For the present study to achieve its goals; it should be divided into an introduction, two chapters, and a conclusion. The First Chapter discusses the content of the paper in addition to negotiating the opinions of modern researchers. Finally, the study will document the most important results it finds out.

The Iconography of “The Horse” in Amal Dunqol's Poetry

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Authors: Khitam Othman Al Khouli
Keywords: The Horse, Amal Dunqol, Poetry
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 80 - 89

Abstract

This study highlights the iconic prevalence of the “The Horse” in a semiotic analysis of Amal Donqol’s poetry. The referential relationship between sign and signifier as exemplified in tactile, olfactory and sound symbolism will be a major focus of the paper. Horses have a special significance in Donqol’s ouvert; their tropes and phrases will be studied and explored in terms of iconography and intersexuality. In addition, Donqol’s poetry reinforces the use of the horse’s iconography in the poem’s thematic, body, as well as title. The effectiveness of the semiotic significance of this symbolism, as well as the historical, and religious references of the iconography as a whole, shall be widely explored.

Uses of the Nominal Relative Pronouns in Arabic

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Authors: Abbas Ali Masri
Keywords: Nominal Relative Pronouns, Arabic Language Coherence
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 90 - 104

Abstract

This article seeks to shed light on the Arabic nominal relative pronouns in terms of their aptitude to consummate the principles of connectivity and interdependence between the different linguistic structures, on the one hand, and their potential in helping language users to appreciate the semantic and linguistic coherence, on the other. The nominal relative structure is never independent or discrete, and as such it is always subordinate to another clause in a sentence. Therefore, its meaning is vague and ambiguous and it lacks the power of signifying; as a result it needs an anaphoric reference to render meaning. This is, in turn, the reason why both the nominal relative pronoun and the reference need to be joined together in a compound-like structure that is inseparable, while the significance is indivisible. Consequently, the philosophy and the value of the Arabic nominal relative structure are understood only within the framework of language use.

The Running between Pre-Islamic and Literature Heritage and Modern Physical Education: Sport-Art Comparative Study

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Authors: Abd Elbasit Mubarak , Omar Fajjawi , Reem Ma'aytah
Keywords: Running, Literature, Poems, Physical Education.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 105 - 119

Abstract

In this study, researchers will try to answer many questions, as: Does running sport have a history? Do the Arab "in pre-Islamic phase and after practice" this kind of sports? Was it for fun or necessity in their life for fighting? Can we establish relations between this sport and other sciences in order to reach the cognitive integration? We did our best to answer the above questions; we have found an important and deep history belongs to running, not as others think. We found how much that Arab in pre-Islamic era was caring about this sport; this was obvious in their poems. The researchers also found much caring of linguistic dictionaries about running. In this paper, we are qualified to reject the speech Arab that miss logic and prove in pre-Islamic phase were ignorant and did not have noble history. We also were able in this study to prove the comparative way between different sciences to reach the cognitive integration, which it becomes a must for any science to correlate with other sciences to have a comprehensive view as Al-Jahez (الجاحظ) said: "Explanation comes from science". Our way in this study will expose the issue in pre-Islamic poems and historical-art books, and then compare it with recent science.

The Underlying Relationship between the Formal Construction of the Islamic Miniature Paintings and the Rhetorical Values

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Authors: Ahmad F. Abdelmuhsin
Keywords: Formal Constraction, Al-Hariri Scripts, Relationship.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 120 - 136

Abstract

This study shows the relationship between the arts of rhetoric in Al-Hariri Scripts with their literary amusement, persuasion, and behavior refining from one side and the miniature paintings with their structural formations and elements of art and aesthetic from the other side. Both the Scripts and the miniature paintings help to show the beauty of each other through verbal aesthetic creativity in Arabic rhetoric and visual aesthetic creativity in the Islamic miniature paintings. Studying the arts of the Islamic miniature paintings gives us the chance to identify the customs and traditions of the Arab Islamic society in that period of time. It also gives us a lot of day-to-day details that might not be documented in books through analyzing selected samples of miniature paintings in Al-Hariri Scripts and concluding the underlying relationship between the formal construction of “Al-Wasti” miniature paintings and the rhetorical values in Al-Hariri Scripts. Through this analysis, the study proved the underlying relationship between the formal construction of “Al-Wasti”- Scheffer Hariri’s copy in Paris- and the rhetorical values in Al-Hariri Scripts which is related to literary written text.

Writing Skill between Reality and Ambition

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Authors: Wafa' Qoteshat
Keywords: Writing Skill, Teaching Strategies, Linguistic Performance.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 137 - 150

Abstract

This study aimed to focus on the writing skill for the undergraduate students, showing its importance in shaping their personalities, and upgrading the capacity of their linguistic performance. The researcher asked a sample which is (100) student to write two essays; the first one was diagnostic, and the second was preceded by a training program which included exercises, activities and many teaching strategies. According to the results of the study, there were statistically significant differences between the percentage of students who have fallen into errors before the training program and the percentage of those who have fallen into errors after the program. Furthermore, the percentage of students who have fallen into errors after the program was lesser than before the training program, which indicates that the program is an essential contribution to reduce the weaknesses of the writing skill for students.

Nostalgia in Diab Rabee’ Poetry

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Authors: Ibrahim Nemir Mousa
Keywords: Nostalgia, Homeland, Return, Palestine, Occupation.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 151 - 165

Abstract

This research sheds light on nostalgia in Diab Rabee’s poetry. Following his visit to the United Nations in New York in 1947 to cover talks over the division of Palestine, the poet was denied entry to his homeland, Palestine. This sour experience has left it’s marks in the poet’s heart, life, and literature. In his poetry, he talks about his nostalgia to his occupied homeland. The study deals with this theme critically and analytically to reveal the dimensions of longing to homeland through four subthemes، definition of the concept “longing”; longing to homeland, longing to the past and longing and exile with reference to the poet’s biography and historical account. This is done with emphasis on means of linguistic expressions to produce meanings because they reveal the poet’s inner thoughts which reflect the collective voice and the dreams of freedom and independence, as well as, national integrity rejecting occupation, oppression, and human abuse.

The Impact of the Consumerist Vernacular on language Identity

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Authors: Fatima M. A. Al-Omari
Keywords: Consumerist Vernacular, language Identity.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 166 - 171

Abstract

Language is a main component of consumerist vernacular. It’s also a container of thought and a hauler of culture. There have been attempts to leap towards the horizons of language and to adapt it to the conditions of the present in all its manifestations especially, socioeconomic ones. There have been attempts to turn it into an obedient tool in promoting consumerist culture in general under the guise of breaking the monopoly of knowledge and ownership. This has been done so that it is presented to the masses in many forms, and converted into a consumer product for popular consumption surpassing the elite in the process. The language attracted by the consumerist culture was transformed by it, and endured changes in its features. It became - in many of its manifestations - a hybrid language unconsciously mixed with many other languages. It mixed the spoken language with the degraded and was influenced by society and its laws. It trailed the international march of powers and authority and followed, or rather her sons forced it to follow, many unfamiliar trends and eventually wore a new yet borrowed dress. This paper attempts to describe the bases of the new consumerist vernacular through gauging its features and monitoring its changes, by linking it to the content of direct discourse at its special requirements.

Life and Death Dialectic in Mahmoud Darwish’s Poems

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Authors: Raed Walid Jaradat
Keywords: Life, Death, Mahmoud Darwish.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 172 - 180

Abstract

This study aims at investigating the duality of life and death in Mahmoud Darwish’s poems because it is remarkably a recurrent theme in his literary works. This study shows the most prominent death’s patterns and imagery in Darwish’s poetic speech such as the death of relatives, the death of friends, the death of beloved ones and lovers, and the death of martyrs and heroes. Moreover, the study clarifies that Darwish’s has an insightful vision of death, and he has a futuristic vision that forms things according to their reflections in his mind and heart. Thus, death, for him, means to experience life. This vision is true because there is an act of martyrdom that really exists; this act actually becomes part of the Palestinians daily lives and so they acclimate themselves to it. Therefore, it is death which generates life and achieves victory. So martyrs’ passing away represents two deaths: death for death and death for life. Darwish glorifies death because he considers it the wedding for martyrs and a way to restore the land, expel the enemy, and achieve the Palestinian self at its homeland.

The Quranic Intertextuality in Ibn Al-Haddad Al- andalusi collection (DIWAN)

en
Authors: Thana N. Ayyash
Keywords: Intertextuality, Hypertextualite, Dissolution and Absorption.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 181 - 192

Abstract

This research aims to clarify the effect of the Qur'anic text in enrichment the poetic text by Ibn Al-Haddad Al-Andalusi, which was derived from the words of the Holy Quran, and its meanings, stories and also the names of the prophets - peace be upon them - which appeared in the different purposes in his poetry such as; praise, lamentation, spelling, description, wisdom and flirting. This research will attempt to highlight the poet's ability to evoke the Qur'anic text (absent texts) and employed it in his poetic text (present text), that reveals a good choice, delineation and employment, which became an essential part of his poetic text. The research will shed the light on the mechanisms of intertextuality as appeared in Al-Andalusis's poetry and the mechanism of dissolution and absorption which may be the most notable in Al-Andalusi's poetry - as it will appear through the analysis of the models. The research will also focus on the practical side; so it will not be drown in the details of the theory of Intertextuality and its definition and mechanisms, but it's just mentioned the definitions that will contribute in lighting aspects of the analysis of the poetic text.

Metaphorical Imagery in the Poetry of Al-'Abbas Ben Al-Ahnaf

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Authors: Muhammad Saleh Al-Khawaldah , Hussam Al-Lahham
Keywords: Metaphor, Imagery, Ben Al-Ahnaf, Personification and Animation
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 193 - 204

Abstract

This study tackles the metaphorical imagery in the poetry of Al-'Abbas Ben Al-Ahnaf, hoping to highlight the artistic and aesthetic values his poetry teems with. The study begins with an explicatory note on imagery in which we pointed out structurally formalistic and metaphorical trends successfully demonstrated in the poet's metaphorical language, which is the essence of the poetic language. Here, we tried to fathom the depth of two forms that the metaphorical imagery of Ben Al-Ahnaf's poetry has taken: personification and animation of abstract and concrete images. Through a skillful synthesis of these two forms, Ben Al-Ahnaf's poetry crystallizes his poetic language, with all its artistic and aesthetic connotations. We also highlighted the poet's creative techniques of expression that skillfully combined the abstract with the concrete, realism with imagination, where the artist skillfully blends the concrete with the abstract and creates a new kind of existence that contrasts with the familiar reality.

Attitudes of Social Work Students’ at Al-Balqa Applied University towards their Academic Study

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Authors: Lubna M. El-Adayleh , Hanaa T. Al-Hadedy
Keywords: Attitudes, Social work.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 205 - 224

Abstract

This study aimed to explore attitudes social work students’ at-Al-Balqa applied University towards their academic study, and to report the relationship between some factors as “sex, education level, residence place and GPA and their attitudes towards their academic study. To achieve this goal a survey was made of all students at the first semester of the academic year 2012/2013 in a total of (308) students (M&F) in the Social Works Department at Princess Rahma University, The study used Statistical Package for Social Sciences (spss), simple and advanced (t-test & f-test) statistics methods were used to analyze the variance and to demonstrate the differences and the statistical significance of variables. Study results revealed that the study sample has positive attitudes towards their academic study in general; studying social works courses, social works tutors, social works role and importance’s in society and life and towards social works as a professional job. Results indicate the existence of statistically significant differences in attitude towards social works tutors and towards social works as a professional job according to sex variable in favor of females, and existence of statistically significant differences in attitude towards social works tutors due to residence place variable in favor of students living in villages, also statistically significant differences in attitude towards social works as a professional job due to educational level in favor of students in the 4th year. Finally, the results explained that there are no statistically significant differences found between social works students towards their field of study according to GPA.

The Argumentative Eloquence of Oath within Al-Nabigha's Apologetics

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Authors: Mohammad Khaleel Alkhalayla , Thana Najati Ayyash
Keywords: Oath, Al-Nabighas, Apologelizs
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 225 - 235

Abstract

This research aims to highlight the argumentative eloquence of oath within the apologetics of Al-Nabigha Al-Thubiani, as it is considered one of argument techniques that he used in order to persuade Al-Nuaman Ibn Al-Munther that he is innocent from insulting Al-Nuaman as was ascribed to him. The research has turned out the multiplicity of oath forms that it adopted, as they all were leading to one consequence which is Al-Nabigha's innocence from what was ascribed to him. He made an oath by God and by the camels that were carrying pilgrims in more than one place; and he then raised gradually on his oath from making an oath to prove his innocence, defending himself, expressing his obedience to Al-Nuaman, and showing Al-Nuaman's influence and power, to make the oath that is mixed with admonition. Since that Al-Nuaman believed the informers' statements which aimed to corrupt the relationship between both of them. An analysis was made to the models indicating each form, and the research manifested the inferential approach that Al-Nabigha pursued in his defense, which lead him to succeed in his apology, and to achieve Al-Nuaman's pardon, and then to return to his home as was formerly

The Historical Relations Between Jordan and the Soviet Union (1946-1989)

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Authors: K. Hajjaj , A. Mashagbeh , S. AL-Sarhan
Keywords: The Historical Relations, Jordan, Soviet Union
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 236 - 245

Abstract

This paper discusses the historical, diplomatic, and political relations between Jordan and the Soviet Union during the period between 1946 and 1989. This period started with Jordan Independence and ended with the Soviet Union vanishing as a super power. This study focus on the factors which prevent the two countries to have an ordinary diplomatic relations, and the Soviet Union position towards Jordan, and his opposition to Jordan to join the United Nation, and the circumstances that forced Jordan to have diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union later in 1963, despite the ideological differences. This paper also discusses the international environment which surrounded the Arab World in general in respect to the relations between the two super powers, and the role of the Arab world in international polices and consequently relations between the Arab countries themselves; the Arab world divided between pro and anti super powers from 1950 to 1960, and was also divided with respect to have Egypt or not in the Arab League as the result of the USA policy to force Egypt to sign the Camp David agreement with Israel in the early eighties of the twentieth century.

Liens et lieux camusiens dans la fiction narrative de Youssef Al-Charouni De La Peste à L’Épidémie

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Authors: Waël Rabadi
Keywords: Camus, Al-Charouni, littérature comparée française et arabe, influence, reception.
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 246 - 254

Abstract

Lues dans leurs successives traductions dès le milieu des années cinquante, La Peste et L’Étranger sont les œuvres de Camus qui eurent le plus d’échos en Orient Arabe. Si ces romans camusiens, parus respectivement en 1947 et 1942, ont bouleversé de façon significative l’imaginaire et la stylistique arabes, aucun critique local n’a paradoxalement explicité avec précision l’influence sur les lettres égyptiennes de cette « écriture blanche », pour reprendre l’expression barthésienne, aux thèmes pluriels. C’est l’étude que nous proposons aujourd’hui à travers la lecture d’une œuvre de l’auteur égyptien Youssef Al-Charouni : L’Épidémie (1954), fortement inspirée par : La Peste. Suivant un parcours en trois étapes, nous saisirons cette fiction inédite en langue française dans ses liens singuliers avec le roman phare d’Albert Camus, La Peste en ce qui concerne sa thématique. Nous montrerons du même coup combien l’écrivain français a impulsé au jeune Charouni son désir d’écrire.