Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 41, Issue 1 Supplement 1

The Rhetorical Structure of Abi Tamam’s poem ‘Fi Fath Amourya’

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Authors: Khaled Al-Jaber
Keywords: Abi Tamam Poem, Fath Amourya
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 1 - 18

Abstract

This paper sheds light on the rhetorical structure of Abi Tamam’s poem ‘Fi Fath Amourya’. It examines the deep rhetorical structure of the poem, and the type of shifts attested, in an attempt at identifying the main aspects of opposition prevalent in ‘Fi Fath Amourya’. The impact of this opposition imparts on the linguistic structure of the poem is also considered. The language used by Abi Tamam, and the rhetorical opposition expressed using a number of rhetorical devices, namely verbs of transformation, the superlative, the circumstantial structure, the negative and the conditionals, are studied. The paper also examines how the poet employs metaphor, assonance, antitheses and alliteration to convey the intended message of the poem; the characters are also given due attention in the analysis. The paper concludes by discussing the poetic images, and the role they play in developing the aspects of opposition noted in the aforementioned poem.

The childhood in Mahmoud Shalbi's poems

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Authors: Imad Abed alwahab AlDmour
Keywords: Mahmoud Shalbi, Childhood, Poems
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 19 - 28

Abstract

This survey aims to show the impact of the childhood reminisces and its significance of in the poetic contextualization in Shalbi's poems, however these reminisces reflects the real picture of the poet's early childhood days where the nostalgia is in a clear memory connected with time ,place(Palestine) and characters (mother). Reminisces highly shown in Shalbi's poems as a source of struggling and solidarity ,which makes the poet's childhood goes side by side with the liberation struggle against the occupiers. This study uncovers the impact of the childhood psychological implications expressed by the poet himself ,that enriches Shalbi's poems in a direct and clear language reflects his desire to escape from real life through making a friendly belongness with his mother land through his nostalgiacal reminisces.

Metaphysics in the Oratory Quotes of Nahj Al Balaghah: A Documentary Study

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Authors: Feryal Abdollah Hodeb , Mohammad AlShraydah
Keywords: Metaphysics, Nahj Al-Balaghah
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 29 - 45

Abstract

This paper studies some of the oratory quotes in the book of Nahj Al Balaghah compiled by Al Sharif Al Radhi. These quotes center around one theme which proves that Ali Ben Abi Taleb possessed the virtue of knowing what is metaphysical. These metaphysical quotes appeared in two tracks: The first track which was theoretical: had some declarations ascribed to Ali Ben Abi Taleb. These declarations emphasize his knowledge of what is metaphysical as well as the sources and the limits of the metaphysical world. The second was practical in which Ali made prophecies that predicted near and far future. Because of the religious and theoretical significance of the discourse in these narrated quotes, the study attempts to analyze, scrutinize the exigencies of Nahj Al Balaghah to ascertain whether they conform with the historical and religious references that preceded them. The objective is to put these quotes in their right cultural perspective in accordance with the epoch they appeared in. The original documentary analysis came up with the following conclusions: 1. The trip of these quotes started in the fourth Hijri Century, which means that there is no mention of them in any historical reference preceding Nahj Al Balagha. 2. The quotes claimed that Ali received the virtue to predict what is metaphysical from Prophet Mohamad, God's blessing and peace be upon him. This study proves that the Prophet himself did not possess the power to know about what is metaphysical. Hence, how could he bestow something that he did not possess upon Ali or any other person? 3. These metaphysical quotes were not successful in drawing a positive image of Ali as a knower of what is metaphysical as they claimed. On the contrary, they presented him as someone who claims knowledge, but does not know how to deal with it with any responsibility or ability. 4. The prophecies ascribed to Ali were discriminatory for they take a stand against Bani Ummayah clan who were presented as criminals, killed the Shiite of Ali, and foreshadowed their tragic fall later by the Abbassids. 5. The prophecies were restricted to the epoch when Ali lived and did not go beyond the third Hijri Century. Moreover, they did not extend in their content to any period of time after the death of their compiler in 406 H. The study finds that ascribing the virtue of prophecies to Ali was part of some late argumentation about the prophet's disciples (sahabah), and their virtues. However, these quotes have no connection to their virtual era.

Omar Ben Abdel Aziz’s Poetry and its Musical Composition (Review and Criticism)

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Authors: Mefleh Al Fayez , Qutaiba Alhabashneh
Keywords: Ben Abdel Aziz. Poetry and its Musical Composition
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 46 - 56

Abstract

This research aims at reviewing the accounts presented in the historical and literary references about Omar Ben Abdel Aziz,s musical composition of some of his poems , and the collection of some poems ascribed to him according to these references. The research aims also at discussing , scrutinizing these references for the purpose of justifying what had been ascribed to him. The research consists of a preface and two parts. The First part deals with Omar ,s composition and the second disusses the poetry ascribed to him.

Abstract

This study seeks to explore the nature of the Catholic missionaries in the Ottoman provinces, in particular Anatolia during the nineteenth century. The research also attempts to shed light on the activities of the Catholic missionaries in the educational field as an example, and explains the beginning of the missionaries activities in the Ottoman Empire and the factors that facilitated their attempts in different provinces (Wilayat). In addition, the study discusses the ways the missionaries utilized to spread their efforts in schools that were established in many districts within the Empire, and the attitude of the Ottoman government towards such activities. Finally, the study ends with the results and effects of these missionaries activities on the Ottoman society.

The Syntactic Structure and It’s Impact on the Meaning, Grammar and Semantic of the Word

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Authors: Bander M. Al-khaldi
Keywords: Syntactic Structure, Shrines of Hariri, Linguistic relationships.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 78 - 93

Abstract

This research aims to shed light on the relationships linguistic and non-linguistic linked syntax, because of their significant impact on the meaning, grammar and semantic of the word, and through the application on the shrines of Hariri, as he tries to hear the application of some media about the text on those standings, in order to detect consistency means script - whether linguistic or lexical means - that lead to interdependence between the internal components built and external. Study Will Be Presented to Him During The Next Papers.

Towards Modern Linguistic Studies for Arabic Speech: The Study of Lexical Cohesion as an Example

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Authors: Rasoul AlKhafaji
Keywords: Lexical Cohesion, Linguistic Studies
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 94 - 106

Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to stress that lexical repetition is the most important standard of textuality and that textual cohesion is primarily realized by this type of repetition. To show this, the study proposes and applies a technique for studying and quantitatively analyzing written Arabic texts by measuring the degree of lexical cohesion among the sentences of a given text. The analysis and measuring of lexical cohesion, according to the proposed linguistic technique, would enable text linguists to identify cohesively ‘bonded’ sentences, as well as to distinguish between cohesively ‘central’ and ‘marginal’ sentences in a text. The paper also demonstrates how the identification of the above three types of sentences can enable linguists, among other things, to produce cohesive and coherent text summaries which may range from 50% down to 10% of the length of the unabridged version of the original text. Such text summaries become possible by excluding cohesively ‘marginal’ sentences and combining all, or only highly cohesive or ‘central’, ‘basic’ sentences in a given text.

Woman Self Exchanges in the Novel of" Dareyah" by Sahar Al Mouji

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Authors: Linda Abd Alrahman Obead
Keywords: Woman Exchange, Daryah Novel.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 107 - 116

Abstract

Woman Self in the novel of "Dareyah" by sahar Al-Mouji takes many forms, beginning with woman self under the concept of parental Society, to many forms of Suffering that lead the self to exchange in to another self, which is more ware and recognition, that many produce rebellion events, mixed with hurts based on removing body from authority capavity before removing mind and soul taking the writing work as away for that and suited in that with the ideology of woman free reasoning taken from creative as a method for that, reaching with self in to the stage of freedom, so it enters the stage of separating from the other. The novel put it's continents over an extensive narrating design based on various narrative techniques, and rich linguistic levels, so from the level of direct language, in to the level of expression poetry language, ending with the level of extensive imaginary dream. The research depends on analytical text method based on narrative techniques opening on some theories of psychology and sociology with related to rising the self and it's forms and psychological and ideological and biological conflicts with in the society.

The Aesthetic of Prosodic and Rhythmic Structure of "at-Taweel Meter"

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Authors: Khalaf K. Khraishah
Keywords: Prosodic and Rhythmic Structure, Al-Taweel Meter.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 117 - 130

Abstract

This research aims at exploring the hidden reason of the popularity of (at –Tawil) meter. Statistical figures of Vadet I (1955) and Stoetzer (1986) corpora shows that this meter make up %50-35 of classical Arabic poetry. The research states that the foot mafac –ilun (u- - -) is the origin of both: prosody and rhythm. It governs the rest of all prosodic feet. Its variation (u- u -) generates all other variations in Arabic prosody, and mafa-c.ilun (u - - -) as a rhythmic structure is the basic of all constituents of musical rhythms in Arabic poetry. The (yes-no) phenomenon encourages (al-Khalil b. Ahmad 100-170A.H) to consider the essence of binarity in Arabic prosody which shows that The “Tawil” meter with its metron (fac -ulun mafac –ilun) is the origin of all Arabic meters and its rhythmic structure (fac -ulun fac –ulun fac) is also the origin of all musical rhythm. (Hazim al-Qartajanni -684 A.H) states that poetic structure should be associated with a relevant (special) poetic meter. Finally; a question been raised: why (at –Tawil) is better than the other meters ?! ; here comes the study of (Golston Ch. and Riad T.) entitled (The phonology of classical Arabic meter) they argue that the rhythmic and well-formedness of al-tawil meter as the leading and most popular meter in classical Arabic poetry is noticable because the best meters are all started by a combination of penta-elemental and hepta-elementals feet headed by the congregated peg (wated majmu').Thus; the different degrees of popularity of the Arabic meters can be understood as a direct function of rhythmic well-formedness.

The Impact of Communication Technology Applications on the Functions of Public Relations in the Health Sector of Jordan

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Authors: Tahseen Mansour , Haya Mansour
Keywords: Hospital Public Relations , Communication Technology, Public Relations, Government and Private Hospital.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 131 - 150

Abstract

This study aims to identify the impact of communication technology applications on the functions of public relations including: research, planning , communication and evaluation. It also aims to indicate differences of the impact of these applications on the functions of public relations according to some demographic and functional variables. A questionnaire was designed which included (58) items that have been distributed to 130 employees in the 31 hospitals in the capital Amman in 2012. In order to achieve the study objectives , the data were analyzed by using the SPSS softwareThe study arrived at the following conclusions: - Jordan's health sector uses communication technology at high level of 2.46, technology was used in communication and public relations functions in the following order: planning, communication, research and evaluation. - Simple regression proved that there is impact of the use of communication technology on the four functions of public relations according to the coefficient of determination interpreted. Results have been found as follows: (research.372 , planning.363 , communication.317 , evaluation.318). - There were statistically significant differences in the fields of communication technology, research, planning and communication depending on the gender with the exception of evaluation. - No statistically significant differences of the impact of communication technology applications in all the functions of public relations were seen due to age and experience. - The differences were statistically significant in the use of communication technology and planning. The differences were valid for the Ph.D and Masters degrees, while the rest of the functions were not statistically significant. - No statistically significant differences were noticed in both the use of communication technology, research, planning and communication according to specialization, with the exception of evaluation function where it was statistically significant. - -The differences were statistically significant in the areas of use of communication technology and research due to job title. The differences were in favor of the head of department while the remaining areas (planning , communication , and evaluation) did not show any differences. - The differences were statistically significant in the five areas of study (the use of communication technology, research, planning, communication and evaluation), due to the type of the sector.

Dictionary of Public Life Expressions in Jordan (Analytical Study)

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Authors: Fatima M. Olaimat
Keywords: Dictionary, Expressions, Jordan
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 151 - 163

Abstract

Making dictionaries is an important domain in the field of applied linguistics. The Dictionary of Public Life Expressions in Jordan is considered to be a great achievement in this field since it is not only a dictionary but also a historical book because it contains expressions related to the Jordanians' culture, knowledge, and society. The importance of this study lies in the fact that it tries to explore the bases on which the dictionary was constructed. The study also tries to highlight what is new in the dictionary. Moreover, the study discusses and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the dictionary. The study also shows some of the challenges and obstacles that faced the process of writing this dictionary in particular and writing Arabic dictionaries in general. Needless to say that dictionaries in general have not been analyzed and studied enough, and they still face challenges and obstacles.

The Metaphore: A Study in it’s Origin and Development

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Authors: AlMothanna M. Al-Asasfeh
Keywords: Metaphore, Studies in Criticism
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 164 - 185

Abstract

This research is a study of the origin and development of the subject of metaphor because of the great importance of this subject on our studies in criticism over decades of time. Metaphor with its different branches was the starting point of following stylistic studies which were based on this metaphoric formula of language in the numerous rhetoric studies. Based on this. The researcher decided to track a little bit of the development of metaphor in Arabic studies. Stops were made at different stages of this development to put the beginning of this rhetoric term in a framework related to different consecutive critical eras.

The Critical Reading in Light of the Stylistic Theory

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Authors: Abdallah Anbar
Keywords: Critical Reading, Stylistic Theorty Text.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 186 - 199

Abstract

The present research calls for establishing a critical reading which uncovers the stylistic constructions along with any covert strength beyond forming text in certain ways. Such reading aims at discovering the distinguished constructions that have semantically-loaded contents. These distinguished constructions are looked at as aesthetic tools which grant the text its special flavor and authority. The critical reading which this paper attempts to reach opens the door for achieving cultural awareness based on the idea that Literary Criticism conveys the conceptual content that is present inside literary works. This paper claims that the stylistic theory has a very distinguished position in modern literary criticism. The stylistic theory enjoys an aesthetic effect which adds to the reading of literary texts. This theory is based on the following strategies which played a crucial role in analyzing literary works: 1. Stylistic Choice. 2. Stylistic Recurrence. 3. Stylistic Deviation. 4. Replacement. 5. Message. 6. Reception of Texts. The stylistic theory goes beyond conveying the literal meaning reaching another level which accounts for aesthetic content of literary texts. This theory attempts to reach its goals through finding differences between texts in a dynamic manner. Finally, the stylistic theory contributes to the reading of different constituents which add up to the effectiveness of texts and their semantic contents. The present study is divided into the following two aspects: - First : The Critical Reading. - Second : The Stylistic Theory (Concepts and Strategies).

The Speaking Skill and Quality Standards in Arabic Heritage

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Authors: Jassem Ali Jassem
Keywords: The Spelling Skill, Quality Standards, Arabic Heritage.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 200 - 214

Abstract

Quality dates back to the pre-Islamic age. For example, Al-Mu'alaqqat ‘the greatest Jahili Poems’ were chosen out of the best poems in Arabic poetry. Language skills had a central role in quality where the speaking skill had a high place among them in particular. This research will discuss the contributions and efforts of old Arab scholars and their influence on modern structuralist and transformational-generative grammars. It will also discuss kinds of speaking, its techniques, speech diseases, quality standards, and the idioms which found their way into Western linguistics such as langue and parole, competence and performance, and related issues. In short, the research aims to show the role of ancient Arab scholars in dealing with speaking and their impact on modern linguistics.

Noami Shihab Nye’s Neo- and Post-Romanticism: The Mystique of Separate and Hybrid Landscapes

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Authors: Wafa Awni AlKhadra , Ahmad Y. Majdoubeh
Keywords: American Literature; Modern Poetry; Postmodernism; Neo-Romanticism; Post-Romanticism
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 215 - 225

Abstract

ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to explore two important dimensions of Naomi Shihab Nye's poetry, her “neo”- and “post”-romanticism. We see these two distinct but interconnected dimensions, which have received no serious critical attention, as among her most original contributions to postmodern poetic discourse and as key to understanding much of her thought. By “neo”-romanticism, we refer to Nye's both echo and recreation of the thoughts and structures of traditional, 19th-century British and American Romanticism, especially with respect to the impact of nature on the self and the role of the imagination. By “post”-romanticism, we refer to the impact of daily, domestic, and mundane urban objects on the self. The interesting outcome of these two dimensions – paradoxically, at once opposed and parallel – is not duality but hybridity, which is what Postmodernism is in great part about. The study also implicitly reveals that, while Postmodernism and Romanticism often radically differ, they can at times be quite compatible.

A Poetic Crisis: The Abject in Naguib Mahfouz's The Beggar

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Authors: Areen Khalifeh
Keywords: Naguib Mahfouz, The Beggar
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 226 - 232

Abstract

This article discusses the abject in Naguib Mahfouz's The Beggar, and how it is related to the poetic crisis of its protagonist. It uses Julia Kristeva's definition of the abject, which means an impure maternal element and a negative force, and its related term, abjection, which refers to being on a liminal space between the animalistic and the cultural and between the semiotic and the symbolic. Because Omar Hamzawi quit writing poetry, he could not sublimate the abject other within him. Immersed in the abject, he suffers from symptomatic depression and he himself becomes abject. His body becomes his poetic text disintegrating into nothingness. He tries to commit suicide in order to relapse to a pre-linguistic space where he achieves a union with the m/other. However, he fails to do so and returns to the symbolic by recalling a poetic line.

A Pragmatic Reading of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet

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Authors: Tawfiq Ibrahim Yousef
Keywords: Pragmatic, Shakespear, Rome and Juliet.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 233 - 246

Abstract

This article is an attempt to utilize pragmatics in the analysis of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet by using the "cooperative principle" and the "maxims" as developed by Paul Grice, and "speech acts theory" as clarified by J. L. Austin. The investigation has shown that by drawing upon such language analysis strategies, greater light can be shed on the meaning of the play, especially because it is one of Shakespeare's plays most amenable to pragmatic analysis. Furthermore, it has been found that this kind of analysis invites a special role for the reader to participate more creatively in the interpretation of the text besides providing an in-depth analysis to the play’s scenes and speeches and highlighting certain aspects that may otherwise be overlooked. A pragmatic reading of the play enables us to understand the social function of language and consequently the relationships among the characters and their social status.

Psychosocial Determinants of Alcohol and Drug Abuse

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Authors: Ahmad Alsheikh Ali
Keywords: Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Psychological and Social Functions, Age, Type of Substance Abused.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 247 - 257

Abstract

This study examines several psychological and social factors in predicting alcohol and drug abuse. A sample of 211 participants was obtained distributed into two groups (abusers, n=117, non abusers, n= 94). Psychological and Social Functioning Scale was employed to predict Self Esteem, Depression, Anxiety, Decision Making Confidence, Childhood Problems, Hostility, Risk Taking, and Social Conformity. Type of substance abuse and some other demographic variables were implicit. Results indicated that childhood problems, self esteem and decision making confidence were the main predictors of alcohol and drug abuse. Furthermore, results show differences in psychological and social functions in regards to age and substance abuse type.

War and State Building in the Middle East By:Rolf Schwarz

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Authors: Hasan M. AlMomani
Keywords: War, State Building, State Making, Middle East, Modern Europe, Failed State, Taxation, Representation, Violence.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 258 - 268

Abstract

The aim of this book' review is to offer a critical analysis to the key assumptions and themes presented by the author where the positive contribution as well as points of contention have been highlighted. The key theme of this book focuses on notion that in the Middle East, unlike Europe, wars didn’t make states but they destroyed them and they ended up as a hollow shell. This theme has been applied on different case studies in Arab World mainly Jordan, Iraq and UAE. The analytical review has discussed and analyzed author's arguments, methodology, systemization and demonstration, the theoretical and conceptual reflections on state and statehood as well as patterns of comparison between early modern European state and current Arab state. Eventually/ the review has concluded with offering alternative approaches in dealing with Arab states.