Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 41, Issue 1 Supplement 2

Aristotle's Book of Rhetoric and its Effect on Critical and Rhetorical Heritage of the Arabs, Al Jahiz as a Model

en
Authors: Huda Qazza , Yousif Bakkar , Ziad Zoubi
Keywords: Rhetoric, Aristotle, Jahiz, Model
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 1 - 21

Abstract

The impact of the book rhetoric of Aristotle in Heritage cash and rhetorical theme of Ahawk to search; the value of this book, it is still on after Gore time authored fount of ideas value in literary criticism, and many of the ideas presented by Aristotle which still bear the stamp of novelty and feel free to talk critics when deciding assets literary theory, such as the elements of truth literary " writer, text, and the receiver", and the image, and weight and rhythm, and proportionality, and systems, and strangeness, mystery and clarity, this is the thought of the ideas timeless heritage cash are still dealing with the lesson and make up the books. I do not want these signs summary to stand position colon or analyize to Aristotle's ideas in the book of rhetoric, but Osogaha to indicate the book value stimulate the researcher to follow up on his journeys between the atmosphere different, especially if it was this atmosphere, bigeye and wrote in the statement, rhetoric and criticism. Bigeye understand how this book? Leave it to understand, but for a sharp imitated in his writings? Or you see the face of the ideas of the book in line with his or her own? Or you see the general understanding of some of his ideas? Or you see did not understand at all? These questions evoke mind. That either may understand the book rhetoric or did not understand it is our duty to examine the image of him, as long as it has known his image. And I mean the lesson here not to stand at the borders of judgment understanding or lack of understanding of the book of the original, but I mean ideas erroneous and deviant and horseshoe as mean ideas correct and original, as long as the perception of the impact of the book in his mind, rather than any I have to ask: I understand or did not understand? I ask: How do you understand? The central question remains: Is the impact of the book in bigeye rhetoric? The manifestation of this effect was that. And be the answer to such a question objective analysis of the texts of bigeye contacted closely in the book of rhetoric and translations. When determining citizen communication and vulnerability may tend researcher to generalize the absolute or customization absolute, Valtamim absolute was looking, for example, to imagine bigeye rhetoric and its relevance to the book of Aristotle; customization absolute that deals with topics partial wrote bigeye tries statement face contact with this book. And the right approach should not take away researcher a Almnzein or mediating between them, unless Dallah trace on the type of influence and being a part sporadic Oaelia comprehensive or intermediate between that. It remains the ruling in this case is what it takes to Hin collection of bigeye what he wrote in his books, and then organize, then analyzed and studied, and draw conclusions from it, and then show the signals that can be attributed to arrive copywriters rhetoric. Search for stepped problematic affected bigeye rhetoric Aristotle, and after it finished Me a statement knowing bigeye Bionan and eloquent, and logic and rhetoric from the book, and then tried to Acetknah link between the governing text of bigeye and rhetoric from Aristotle through the study of monetary comparison. At the conclusion of the most prominent phrase search results, which showed the nature of this vulnerability and circumstances and extent.

Dialogues of Mahmoud Darweish's Poetry

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Authors: Issa Al-Abbadi
Keywords: Mahmoud Darweish, Poetry, Dialogue.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 22 - 36

Abstract

Modern and contemporary Arabic poetry has been influenced by the techniques of world poetry. Many Arab poets have followed poetic modernism consciously and mastered it. Mahmoud Darweish represents this modernism and adopted it in this poetry. Dialogue has been a main characteristic of modern Arabic poetry. Mahmoud Darweish was able to adopt three forms of dialogue, multiple voices and monologue to maintain beautiful rhyme that reflects his vision and his ability to unleash the inner poetic self. This poet detected the important difference between internal monologue and the stream of consciousness which in turn aided in translating these modern poetic techniques into unique poetry at the level of art and vision.

The Perceptions of Instructors to the Problems Teaching Arabic as A foreign Language and learning

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Authors: Khetam Mohammed Al- Wazzan , Majed Mohammed Al – Khayat
Keywords: Instructors Perceptions, Problems Teaching, Student's Foreign Language
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 37 - 53

Abstract

This study aimed at investigating the perceptions of instructors toward teaching problems of Arabic as a foreign language, and its relation to the teacher experience. The study sample consisted of (57) instructors who teaching Arabic as foreign language. The instrument which consisted of (52) items was applied at the sample of this study. Results revealed the most perception problems of teaching Arabic as A foreign language: - About curricula: does not reflect the cultural and intellectual interests for the learners. - About instructors: few of involvement of instructors in international conferences dealing with teaching Arabic as A foreign language. - About learners: individual differences among students at the same level. - About teaching environment: the absence of specialized library containing books, references, stories and novels for the foreign students. On the other hand, the results showed also no statistically significant differences in the perception problems teaching Arabic as A foreign language according to year's experience of instructors. The researchers recommended that more studies should be undertaken. These studies should be focused on the standardized instrument for teaching Arabic as A foreign language.

Abstract

The study aimed at exploring the causes of school violence from parents' perspective in the district of Aiera and Yarqa in Balqa Governorate/ (Jordan), for the academic year 2010/2011. The study also aimed at describing the most important means of reducing violence. The study sample consisted of (100) parents' (28 fathers and 72 mothers), and used the social survey sample method questionnaire to achieve the study objectives. The study results showed that the most important social causes that lead to school violence are: the inability of the family in providing the basic requirements for students, followed by bad association . The most important causes of school violence are: tightened control over students, followed by weakness in the administrative leadership at the school. The results also showed the existence of statistically significant differences between the average answers to the parents of students on the underlying social and school violence and the default scale average, the non-presence of statistically significant differences due to sex differences. These differences were found due to educational achievement and that the most important means of reducing violence from the perspective of parents' are: the providing of services (playgrounds, yards...) in the school, followed by activation of school guidance and counseling, and training of teachers in specialized courses in positive dealings with students .The study recommends the enlightenment of parents with the causes of school violence. It also recommends instructing teachers and administrative staff on the ideal method of dealing with students.

Historical Writing in the 10 AH Century: The Sixth AD Century

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Authors: Rab’a Shaker , Mohammed Khreisat
Keywords: Historical Writing, 10th Century
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 70 - 79

Abstract

This study deals with Ottoman Historical Writing in the 10 AH century, the sixth AD century, namely after the Ottoman conquest of Arab countries. The period before the Ottoman conquest of Arab countries witnessed historians who have received the luck of fame such as: Al-Maqrizi, Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, Badr Al- din Al-Aini, Ibn Taghree Bardi, Al- Suyti, Ibn Iyas and others. For the Ottomans, their historical writing was characterized by focusing on virtues of Al- Ottoman and their conquests, so the information were largely similar to the predominance of the military nature. Ottoman Historical Writing can be divided into three main topics: - Books of forays and conquests - Books of Sultans (virtues): These books singled out the works of the most prominent ottoman sultans such as Sulaiman Namech for mant authors, virtues of Yazeed and others. - Books of general history: dealt with the history of Al-Ottoman, such as popular yearbooks The most prominent Ottoman historians in that period: Mustafa Al- Janabi, Asheq Zada, Ibn Qurra Ali, Aruj, Kama Basha Zada, Lutfi Basha Al-Roomi, Mohammad Jamali, Shukri Zada, Nashanji,Ramadan Zada and others. Thus we see that the lack of concern for the attention of the Ottomans in writing during this period doesn't based on fact, but that many of the manuscripts about the history of Ottoman still waiting for the investigation.

The Place in the Novel "Very Lonely Man" by "Dr.Yahia Ababinah"

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Authors: Muhammad Majed Al-Dahkeel
Keywords: Place, Novel, Very Lonely Man
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 80 - 87

Abstract

This research deals with place as it one of the elements of the novel "Very Lonely Man "showing the importance of place in this novel. The research also cleared out the writer's ability in making use the place with the relation to novel elements as characters, events and ideas showing the nature of relation among them, and the interaction of place between them with fine and beautiful style, through application.

Arab in Models of Modern Hebrew Literature

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Authors: Munaf N. Abdul-Ghani
Keywords: Arab, Hebrew Literature, Poets
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 88 - 97

Abstract

The Jewish perspective about Arabs is negative in general. This is related to the Jewish religious and ideological views. All verses talk about Arab in the Old Testament and the Talmud are insulting and defaming them. This matter affected on the Jewish thinking model generally and the Modern Hebrew Literature. This research presents a quick view about the Arab in the Old Testament and the Talmud which are the most holy Jewish books of the Jews. This research deals also with the literary and intellectual views about the others especially the Arab. On the other hand, this research is shedding the light on some Hebrew writers & poets and their literary Hebrew works which are regarded the most prominent celebrities, one of them is S.Y. Agnon who got the Noble prize for literature. Another writer is H. Hazaz who humiliated the Arab in his literary works and journalist interviews as well. Other Writers have followed that approach such as Moshe Shamir , Amos Oz and other writers who dealt with the same subject. This research casts light also on same poetic works of other prominent Jewish poets about the same topic like Shaoul Tchernochovesky, Natan Alterman and David Shamoni who dealt also negatively with Arab character; they have given bad descriptions like “underdeveloped”, “murderers”, “aggressiveness”… etc. Finally we can notice that all the Jewish writers and poets have used the stereotype through their description and presentation of the Arab in their literary works.

Palestinian Daily Press Coverage of 25 January Egyptian Revolution

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Authors: Hatem Alawneh , Amer Fayez
Keywords: Press Coverage, The Palestinian Press, 25 January Egyptian Revolution
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 98 - 127

Abstract

The study aimed at identifying the extent of the daily Palestinian press attention to the events of the 25 January Egyptian revolution from January 25th to February 12th, 2011. The study analyzed the content of all of the Palestinian daily newspapers in the Occupied West Bank, including19 numbers of Jerusalem; The Days and The New Life newspapers. The following are the most prominent findings of the study: - Palestinian daily newspapers focused largely on the subject of demand to topple the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, and on showing the international response to the revolution. - Press release was the most common type of journalistic style to be used by the daily Palestinian press (50.7%), followed by newspaper articles (18.8%). The daily Palestinian press depended on a variety of foreign news agencies for (62.4%) press coverage. - Palestinian daily press used mainly eight types of media frames during its coverage of the events of 25 January Egyptian revolution, the emotional frame was in the forefront within other frames (25.4%), followed by intimidatory frame (23.6%) and the interest frame (20.9%).

Arab Childern’s Literature: The Concept and The Challenges

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Authors: Mowafaq Moqdadi
Keywords: Children’s Literature, Challenges, Writing
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 128 - 141

Abstract

The discussion touched on the Subject of the Arab children`s literature in terms of: The concept and the challenges of writing for Arab children, through a statement that settled on the concept of children`s literature. In modern times, the problems of the Arab children`s literature present in terms of: concept and form, also suggested solutions for those problems, and followed by discussion about importance of the psycological literature geared to children. The study concluded with the most important solutions for writing for the Arab children.

Natural Disasters and Its Effect on Agricultural Life in Bilad Ashsham during the Second Mamluki Era

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Authors: Fawzi Kh. Al-Tawahyeh
Keywords: Second Mamluki Era, Agriculture, Natural Disasters, Bilad Ashsham
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 142 - 162

Abstract

This study investigated two main topics. The first illustrates natural disasters which invaded Bilad Ash-Sham during the second Mamluki Era (784-922 A.H./ 1383-1516 A.C.) to investigate its content, nature, and types (drought, effusion, snow storms, cold, frost, winds, locust, rats, and plague). The second topic illustrates the size of the effects of these disasters on agricultural wealth, and its reflection on people in terms of famines, prices increase, as well as the effect on peasants in north Al-Sham, and finally, investigating the most effective one on their life.

Violence Against Social Workers by Beneficiaries and Motivation to Continue Working in Social Services in Umm AL Fahm

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Authors: Khalid Hreish
Keywords: Social Worker, Motivation, Violence, Client, Social Work Center.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 163 - 172

Abstract

This study aims at identifying the violence against social workers by beneficiaries and the motivation to continue working in the social work profession in the city of Umm al-Fahm, within the Palestinian1948 occupied territories. For this purpose, a questionnaire of two aspects, that contains (35) items was designed. The questionnaire was distributed to the entire study community (N=50 social workers), all questionnaires were filled out according to the instructions. The findings show some significant differences in the level of motivation according to gender variable. Females are more motivated to continue in the field than their male counterparts. There is also variation related to education, in which the more educated social workers are the more they are motivated. Finally, the findings show a positive relation between work experience and motivation, in which the less working years in the field of social work the more motivation to continue working in this profession. The researcher implies that legislations that protect social workers in their workplace must be redrafted condemning any violence against social workers as a serious crime, and to increase the social workers skills and capacities by training and capacity building in order to deal with their clients properly.

Foundations of Designing Arabic for Non-Native Speakers’ Tests

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Authors: Nadia Mustafa AL-Assaf , Khetam Mohammad AL- Wazzan
Keywords: Foundation Design, Tests, Measurement and Evaluation
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 173 - 183

Abstract

Test is considered to be an effective method in measuring students’ language capabilities, their educational attainment, and to measure their behavioral goals or educational outcomes. Tests also measure the educational activities and exercises offered by teachers that would help to increase the educational capabilities of students. For that reason, educational supervisors and educators make sure that these tests be of high efficiency as part of the whole process of evaluation. Such efficiency is achieved through designing tests that are free of flaws found in many tests prepared and designed by teachers. Through this study, we can determine the necessary steps that will help us design good and efficient tests that achieve the desired goal, in addition to this, it explains how to design tests for non-native speakers’ who study Arabic Language in spite of their different levels and backgrounds.

The Similarity of the Collective Time in Nasir-Al-Din Al-Assad Poetry

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Authors: Khalid Al-Jaber , Atif Kan’an
Keywords: Al-Assad, Time, Collective
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 184 - 203

Abstract

This study seeks to show some of the features of literary creativity with Nasir al-Din al-Assad, and particularly focused on his Poetry in his only poetic issued in 2007. The study provides a definition of the group and texts distributed by (Al-Assad) on two parts: pre age of twenty, and after a century. Then the convergence of the study felt that Assad is trying to approach the manifestation of the emotional depth of the relationship, and cultural interdependence, between the individual self and the poet of the nation to which they belong, ancient and modern. Here they study focused on the exploration of the self-similarity of time in hair Paljmaa Assad, offered for this, including revelations about his hair in his private time, who appeared in:  Al-Assad self Time in his own life, he lost his father and his mother. He was forced to work in order to live, and then to work in order to be taught at his expense.  The nation's collective time in his life through the ages.  Nostalgia, which is the same self-nostalgia collective, poet and self-similarity of the nation.  The scattering of aspirations and dreams, and the expiration of the era of childhood.

Musical and Visual Perspective in the Work of Musician and Painter (Franz List, Vernet)

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Authors: Mohammed Ali Mallah , Taiser Hamdy Tubishat
Keywords: Musical Porspective, Visual Perspective, Musicaian, Painter
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 204 - 219

Abstract

This study deals with the expressive relationship between the musical and plastic arts. It emphasizes the possibility of moving the physical silence from the visual picture. In the literature of art, there are meetings between the artists in the music and art. These meetings are rarely turned to serious studies out specific results. In this study, the composer Franz Liszt and painter Horace Vernet' met in the work of art that represents the musical work horse Fugitive (Mazeppa), which borrowed (music) artist of the epic Hungarian music and paints (painter) Horace Vernet' on several different stages. This study aims at describing one of the most important and difficult musical piece for piano of the composer Franz Liszt, who is considered one of the pioneers of romantic music, who laid the foundations of classical Hungarian national music. It mentions the four stages of musical evolution, written by Franz Liszt, as shown by the study summary like simple musical career, and then continue as analytical study of a piece of music “Mazeppa”, that shows the use of copyright for music soundtrack inspired by the legendary epic poetry. The study mentions also the technical difficulties faced by pianists at performing of the etude. Then a study of the musical piece that showed the use of the author of music sound track taken from the legendary epics Hungarian poetry. The study also explained the difficulties faced by the pianist in this piece and its causes as well as audio-visual expression of their agreement and through a series painter Horace Vernet's works that came to reflect the content, which belongs to the romantic school.

Aesthetic Design of the Façade of Mushatta Palace

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Authors: Nizar Turshan , Mohammad Nassar
Keywords: Mushatta Palace, Wall Decoration, Elements Decoration, Aesthetic Value, Design Elements and Technical Analysis.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 220 - 235

Abstract

This study aims at manifesting the development of cultural and artistic community that prevailed during the Umayyad periods. It is selected as a subject to study because of the importance of Mushatta Palace in the artistic, aesthetic and historical field. Its’ interface became one of the most important interfaces stone carved by the distinctive decorative elements in the region. The facade of Mushatta Palace is one of the most important monuments in the world museums (Pergamon Museum). The study included a description and analysis of decorative elements that were implemented on this facade, depending on the field visits in either the site of the palace or to the Pergamon Museum which presented large parts of this façade. It was found, through this study, that the artist was able to implement the art of decorative carved on this interface according to the principles and rules relating to the technical work which led to highlight the aesthetic side of this work. Also, it is concluded that the artist has known Umayyad art and excelled in it, and that his skilled hand has done a lot of paintings deals from which he managed to portray whats going inside. The artist has been helped by the availability of different raw materials like stone. The nature of the area of cultural and artistic attractions, has spread the field of creativity, thinking and artistic production. The artist focused on the formation of motifs, although there were some Romanian and Byzantine influences that have spread in several locations in the region, such as the Decapolis cities, Byzantine churches at Madaba and other locations in Jordan.

The Impact of Private Telvision Stations on the University Students in the Light of the Theory of Social Responsibility

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Authors: Ibrahim Fuad Al-Khasawneh
Keywords: Jordanian Television Stations, Youth, Social Responsibility
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 236 - 256

Abstract

This study examined the impact of private television stations on the students of Jordanian university in the light of the theory of social responsibility. The study also aims at identifying the ability to form opinions of students and their role in determining the content of the message up to the viewers, especially college students who follow the events of the media stations. The study aimed at finding out what was the effect of private media stations in the recipients' knowledge, whatever the quality of programs and levels or sources. The results of the study reported that the largest percentage of university students follow-up television stations. It becomes a source of access to news and information for Jordanian university students and it competes the traditional media and online journalism. It is the source that has the confidence of viewers, and it is reliable in the follow-up events. The results showed that the impact of programs of private stations on the study sample was large, and showed that the TV stations as governmental stations have an influential role stems from its social responsibility in the development of knowledge. The study is classified as exploratory and descriptive, in which the researcher used the questionnaire, which was distributed to a random sample of (600) students of different ages from both male and female gender in six Jordanian universities in the three regions North, East and South.

Pupular Protests Movement in the Jordanian Daily Newspapers and the Desirable Transferences in the Jordanian Society "A Survey Study"

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Authors: Ali O. Nejadat
Keywords: Jordanian Protests, Jordanian Press, Jordanian Society
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 257 - 282

Abstract

Arab societies are living these days, exciting times and historical moments which appear in the political movement and the popular revolutions in the Arab street, in order to stop the wheel of oppression and corruption and to ensure a better future for these societies. A wave of demonstrations and protest marches launched in Jordan across the country simultaneously with the violent Arab protests that erupted earlier in the 2011. This study aimed at identifying the extent of interest of the Jordanian daily newspapers coverage of the popular protests movements, and the nature of the protesters' demands, and whether the Jordanian government is interested in responding to these demands or not. This study is classified within the descriptive quality of research of interest to study the communication phenomenon of the status quo through the methodology of survey and content analysis. The study revealed that most important patterns that have addressed the issues and the protests were news and news reports, with a percentage of (86.8%). And that most of the protests came in the form of marches, with a percentage of (57.7%), and the organizers of these marches were from different sectors, the protesters' demands have focused on public issues, with a percentage of (63.1%). The protesters called for a main demand to fight corruption and the corruptives and to amend the laws governing the lives of constitutional democracy, and the departure of the government and the 16th Lower House. The study also revealed that the poor performance of the current parliament the 16th, the government and the lack of seriousness in the implementation of reform programs, and the depth of corruption, a reverse tensil forces the anti-reform, will lead to a lack of reforms in Jordan.

Domestic Violence Services, Training and Funding in Jordan

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Authors: Debbie D. Abuelghanam
Keywords: Domestic Violence, Violence Against Women, Family Violence, Jordan, domestic violence services, domestic violence training, domestic violence funding.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 283 - 301

Abstract

This research project is based on interviews of organizations that provide domestic violence services in Jordan. The study investigates three basic areas – services provided to domestic violence victims, training provided to staff and/or volunteers of agencies as well as for specialized groups, i.e. police and courts; and the types and amounts of operational funding for the association. The article also attempts to address the definitions within the sphere of Civil Society domestic violence agencies. Many previous investigations have looked specifically at the prevalence of domestic violence in Jordan as well as how society has dealt with the issue. No studies have dealt with training and funding while a few have discussed services. It is hoped that this study will begin filling the gaps in knowledge related to the issue of domestic violence as well as to assist in defining the breath, depth and scope of Civil Society in Jordan(1).

Community of One: Al-Ghazali’s Ethical Theory Revisited

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Authors: Mohd Khair Eiadat
Keywords: Al-Ghazali, Ethical Model, Justice; Community; Public Good, Deliberative Politics, Overlapping Consensus, Translating Ethics, Critical Theory, Religion and Politics, Arab-Islamic Thought
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 302 - 314

Abstract

It is more than eight hundred years since Al-Ghazali’s death (1111 AD). Yet his writings are still controversial and a source of contention between those who loath what Al-Ghazali represented (Mohammed al-Jabiri), and those who are more sympathetic and positive towards his writings (for example Ormsby). Yet neither his critiques nor admirers have been able to offer a meaningful and systematic ethical theory based on al-Ghazali’s writings. Using analytical and synthetic method of analysis or what is known as deconstruction and reconstruction in critical theory, we were able to identify two ethical frames in Al-Ghazali’s writings. First, puritarian ethical model or what Al-Ghazali himself called community of one. This model is constructed around two notions, first, faith and certainty and the other is purification and experiencing God. The other ethical model, which was totally ignored by his critiques and underused and under developed by his admirers, is that of community of common believers’ ethical model. This later model is very much society includes the following elements: wealth and public goods; avoiding harm and introducing compassion; burden of injustice. This demonstrates that, Al-Ghazali had a highly developed sense of what it meant for an individual to be ethical and moral, and also a notion of ethical and moral society in which injustice is the worst of all evil. By doing that we were also able to bridge what seemed to be contradictory ethical models in Al-Ghazali’s writings

Equestrian between Art and Sport Sciences in Al-Andalos: Bin Hothayl Alandalosy’s Book: Heliat Alforsan and She'ar Alshoja'n as a Model

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Authors: Omar A. Al Fajjawi , Abdel-basit M. Abedalhafiz , Kifah (Moh’d Khair) Al-Omari
Keywords: The Science of Equestrian, Literature, Sports.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 315 - 321

Abstract

Many researchers and fans are very concerned about equestrian as a very important sport in our present time. Researchers are trying to theorize about this sport according to the given facts of this field of knowledge. They are particularly concerned with the special characteristics of the knight (horse-rider), the horse, and the shape and measurements of the horse track. At the same time, some fans are interested in practicing horse riding for entertainment. When we study the origins of this sport, many researchers might think that ancient Arabs have practiced this sport for fun, entertainment, and fighting. They have also talked about it in their poetry and literature. Researchers have done this without indicating that equestrian as a sport is a science that has its own foundations and rules. For example, ancient Arabs have written a lot about the characteristics of the knight, the horse, and the track. This aspect is almost forgotten in recent studies of equestrian. One of the findings of this paper is that many ancient Arabs have discussed this sport in their literary and poetic books. They have discussed it as a sport science. Accordingly this paper will attempt to prove that ancient Arabs are the pioneers in this field, contrary to what many researchers think about this science, considering it only as a modern science that has nothing to do with the ancient Arabs. The main goal of the present paper is to discuss equestrian in Al-Andalus, enlightened by the book Heliat Alforsan and She'ar Alshoja'n written by Skeikh Ali Bin Abdul-Rahman, known as Bin Hothayl Alandalosy, who considered equestrian as an important science among other sport sciences. He does not provide only a linguistic and poetic theorization of this sport, but also provides all of this within the general context of all sport science. For example, he discusses horse ethics and the different ways of keeping and choosing horses, teaching horse riding, and participating in horse riding competitions. In addition, he supports his discussion with a lot of poetic examples that show how Arabs favor horses, we will compare all of this with the requirements of the modern science that addresses equestrian. The previous mentioned book shows how that ancient Arabs in Al-Andalos have participated in establishing equestrian as a science and how they were able to match between the scientific aspect of this sport and its poetics.

Teaching Arabic Post 9/11: Humor and the Potential for Critical Language Awareness

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Authors: Sawsan O. Abbadi
Keywords: Language, Second Language, Humor, Critical Language Awareness.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 322 - 334

Abstract

In this study, I draw on data from an ethnographic study of a university-level Arabic as a foreign language classroom to demonstrate how humor could be used as a pedagogical tool to make visible relationships between language and ideology. Tools from critical discourse analysis are used to analyze a teacher’s linguistic choices in political humor and the relationship between these choices and the negative representations of the Arabic speaking world that characterize what Byrnes (2004) calls “the language of the public sphere” in the U.S. post 9/11. A follow up discussion of the potential of using humor as a form of Critical Language Awareness is offered to raise students’ awareness of the way in which language maintains ideological assumptions and constructs misrepresentations of the ‘other.’