Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 41, Issue 2

Polygymy: Deteminants and Impact in Jordan: An Anlytical Study

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Authors: Musa M. Shteiwi , Munier Karadsheh
Keywords: Polygmy, Determinnats, Demographic Behavior
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 1 - 20

Abstract

This study focused on examining the different socio-economic determinants of polygamy and its effects on the practices of couples' demographic in Jordan. This study basically depends on the analysis of Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) in year 2007. A set of statistical methods have been used for data processing varied from simple descriptive statistical models and methods, to bilateral descriptive ones, to an advanced statistical models represented by the regression analysis. The results of the study showed that the overall polygamy levels in the Jordanian society maintained the same during the last two decades. But also the study showed decline in polygamy among the more educated and those who live in urban areas. Also it declines among working women, women with younger age when married, women who married from non-kin and women with large age difference with their husbands. Moreover, the study results showed that polygamy has a huge effect on the couples' fertility, using contraceptives, the number of male and female children alive in the family and death of children in the family.

The Letter of African People in the Complaint

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Authors: Raedah M. Akhu Zahya
Keywords: Letter, African People, Complaint
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 21 - 28

Abstract

The importance of African people letter for Hisham bin Abdul Malik is related to the fact that it was the only witness of the African complaint about that policy and the governors of the Umayyads and their workers. The sender of the letter was able to start revolution in their country, thus tightened their grip on the region later in a specified period of time, and they removed all manifestations of Umayyad rule. The current research assessed the message from both objective and technical aspects. The study tried to stand on the injustices African workers suffered from Umayyads policy, how they dealt with these injustices, and their reactions to it. The study also tried to show the role of technical consciences, and style of the condition, and saying to express the people of African suffering

Repetition’s Poetic: Reading in Labeed Ibn Rabe’eah Diven

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Authors: Mohammad Al-Khalayleh
Keywords: Repetition’s , Labeed Ibn Rabe’eah
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 29 - 41

Abstract

This study endeavors to search for the poetical text - of a great poet, one of the Pendants (Al-Mu'allaqat) poets, Labeed Ibn Rabe'ah - from the essence; and to become acquainted with one of the styles that Labeed utilized to form his view. The style that the study approached was Repetition; as it has perused repetition in Labeed's poem in a way that do not stop by the phenomenon's outward but tried to perceive the poet's ability to go beyond repetition, to reach or to achieve the repetition's poetic. The title of this study was "Repetition's Poetic - a Perusal in Labeed Ibn Rabe'ah's Divan". The study discussed the poet's life and the concept of repetition in the past and present. It then extended to study repetition applicably so it would penetrate to its poetics. The study concluded that language is the basis in the formation of the literary work, as the writer perceived this role and started to form his styles to excite the recipient, where one of these styles was repetition which spouted the meanings and increased their glowing, and pointed out the view that the poet turned to form, so that its urging for an angle without the other is one of the composition forms and visions that it persisted on without others.

Monitoring and Measuring the Changes of the Dead Sea Area Using Remote Sensing and GIS Applications

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Authors: Haifa A. Al-Mohammad , Husam H. Al-Bilbisi , Hasan Y. Abu Sammour
Keywords: Dead Sea Area, Landsat ETM+, Manual Digitizing (GIS), Unsupervised Classification, NDWI, MNDWI.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 42 - 57

Abstract

The aim of this study was to apply and evaluate four different methods in order to monitor and measure the changes of the Dead Sea area using GIS and remote sensing technique as well as multi-spectral images acquired in 1987, 1996, 2003, and 2009 by Landsat ETM+ sensor. The four methods are (Manual Digitizing, Unsupervised Classification, NDWI, and MNDWI); the results show that all these method can be used to extract the water body area. The results revealed that the best method which can be used, to measure the changes in water bodies, is The Modified Normalized Differences Water Index (MNDWI) with Green and MIR bands, where the achieved accuracy is better than the other methods. The results show that the Dead Sea area decreased about 40 km2 between 1987 and 2009.

The Necessity of the Metaphysic

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Authors: George Yacoub El-Far
Keywords: Modern Philosophy, Meaning, Metaphysic
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 58 - 64

Abstract

Modern philosophers and scientists asked a fundamental question about the necessity of having Metaphysic till now? Some of them answered that there is no need for Metaphysic in the Modern world, where the science took the central role، and over passed philosophy and religion too. They argued that Metaphysic is just an empty linguistic game, without any meaning in real life. Others like (Kant and Whitehead) insisted on having a new kind of metaphysic related to science. Kant tried hard to criticize the foundation of natural science، while Whitehead tried to reconcile science with philosophy، saying that both of them are necessary in order to help science to broadening its limits. In this paper I took the second position and defend Metaphysic as necessary. It helps in finding the whole meaning of the results of science and helps the mind in building its morality to transfer the humanity from a phase to another.

The Morocco and Andalussian Travels

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Authors: Amenah Suleiman Al Badawi
Keywords: Morocco, Andalussian, Travels
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 65 - 76

Abstract

This study intended to trace the Morocco and Andalussian travels from the third century A.H up to ninth century A.H. since the numbers of these travels are fewer than of the real number of travelers themselves according to reference. There were many motions beyond these travels. The greatest was religious Islamic duty piligramage or the (Haj). After doing the duty and visiting Mecca and Medina (Haramin), most travelers tended to visit the holy places in the east such as Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem or the shrine of Abraham in Hebron then they stopped over Damuscus or other cities. During their return to homeland they stopped in Eygept to visit Amr Bin Al -As mosqe in Fastat.At last, they crossed mafazah from Burga to Tarablus, then to Tunisia and back to Morroco or Al-Andalus. Other motives were the tendency towards explanation and discovering the unknown, or searching for knowledge. The researcher has traced in this very research the printed travels in resourses, manuscripts and the scattered ones in books. Besides, she/He has traced the signs of these travelsand arranged them chronologically.And if the date of the travel has’nt been found, the researcher relies up on the year of the authors demise. Otherwise, she/He takes up the century of the travel unless the auther’death has been found. Thus, the arrangement of the travels has been chronological according to the centuries. It begins with the third century A.H. and ends up with the ninth century A.

The Geographic Features of Urban System in Jordan

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Authors: Thaer Ayasreh
Keywords: Urban System, Urban Growth, Rank –Size Rule, Primate City Law, Index of Primacy, Nearest Neighbor Analysis, Gini Coefficient, Lorenz Curve.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 77 - 102

Abstract

This study focuses on the characteristics of the urban system in Jordan during the years 1979-2004 in the light of the applicability of the rank –size rule. It examines the possibility of a dominant primate city within it through the law of primate city of Jefferson and an Index of primacy. As has been identified on the size of the imbalance equilibrium in the system urban cities through Urban Isostastic Index. The study aims at detecting of spatial distribution patterns of urban centers in Jordan through the application of nearest neighbor analysis. It also applied the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient in measuring the extent of inequality in the distribution of urban cities in the Kingdom. The results of the study showed the existence of significant changes in the urban system in Jordan during the years (1979-2004) included increased in the sizes of cities. As well as, in arranging of these cities in the urban system have rose some of them in urban hierarchy as others decline. As it turns out from the analysis of the results of the study the rank –size rule not applicable to urban system in Jordan. and the appearance of the phenomenon of the dominant city. It was found through the application index of primacy to greater Amman city dominated the rest of the urban centers. The results of the study also showed -by applying Nearest neighbor analysis – that the distribution of urban centers in 1979 is closer to the random spatial pattern. while Nearest neighbor analysis indicated for the years 1994 and 2004 respectively, indicated that the distribution of urban centers is closer to the clustered spatial pattern. In addition, the results of the study showed through the application of Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve the unequal distribution of urban population to the cities during the period of study. Finally, the study provided some of the recommendations and suggestions which will hopefully be used in the development of urban system in Jordan.

Stylistic and Methodologies of Reading the Text

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Authors: Omar Abdullah Al Anbar , Mohammad Awwad
Keywords: Stylistics, Stylistic Analysis, Literary Text, Stylistic Deviation
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 103 - 111

Abstract

Stylistics reveals the aesthetic values and constitute a vision for the set of relations involved in the literary text. Stylistics is based on observing deviations and employing diversity to show the dynamic structural functions and express its content. These elements are the ones responsible for reproducing the text by such differentiations. Thus stylistics embody the distinguished features invoked in the semantic meaning through choices of words in their appropriate positions; this is practiced for the sake of the emotional meaning led by the literary of literature. Linguistic creativity depends highly on the choice of certain constructions which intensify the semantic content imposing the textual authority and textual impact. This research is divided into three themes: First: Stylistics Defined. Second: Stylistics Deviation. Third: Methods of Stylistic Analysis.

American Information Warfare on Iraq in the War Of 2003

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Authors: Ibrahim Ahmad Abu-Argoub
Keywords: Information Warfare, Psychological Warfare, Propaganda
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 112 - 127

Abstract

This analytical study aimed at focusing on the elements of the information warfare campaign waged against Iraq in 2003 war: definition, management, objectives, functions, media, types, target audiences, and its aspects of success and shortcomings. The study concluded that: although the coalition forces achieved military, technological, and information superiority in the war against Iraq by destroying its communication infrastructure, command, and control information systems. Although the information campaign seized the domestic public opinion, it did not achieve all its objectives by controlling the international public opinion, the hearts, and minds of the Iraqi leadership, military and population and make them surrender. The information warfare campaign used deception, mismanagement of the resources, disinformation, destruction, and did not read the Iraqi mind very well as well as did not take into considerations the post – war development; so far, America and Iraqi opposition are the victims of their information warfare deceptive.

The Contributions of Al-Amsar Scholars to the Science of Quranic Recitations in Baghdad during Abbased Era)149 - 447 A.H /766 -1055 A.D(

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Authors: Awad Thunaibat
Keywords: Qur'anic Reciters, Reciting, Islamic Cities and Provinces.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 128 - 148

Abstract

The present study aims at sheding the light on the role of the glorious Qur'an provincial Reciters in the development of the science of Qur'anic reciting during the period 149-447 A.H /766-1054 A.D. i.e. when Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasids Caliphate till the rise of the Saljuqids sultanate. The study explores many elements i.e. the meaning of the Qur'anic reciting science, the causes behind the Reciters coming to Baghdad from all over the Islamic provinces during the period under study, The Reciters biographies and their contributions. Primary and secondary sources are consulted, i.e. general works of history, biographical works, lexical and books of language, Islamic geographical sources, and finally, modern works related to the topic including "Al-Fahrast" by Ibn Al-Nadeem, "History of Baghdad" by Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi, "Ma'refat Al-Qura' Al-Kebar" by Al-Thahabi, and "Ghayat Al-Nehaya fi Tabaqat Al-Qura'" by Ibn Al-Jazri.

The Poetry of Contrast in the Last Divan of Mahmoud Darwish Titled "I Don't Want This Poem to Finish"

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Authors: Ahmed Z. Rahahleh
Keywords: Poetry Contrast, Mahmoud Darwish.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 149 - 162

Abstract

This research endeavors to detect contrast in the last divan of Mahmoud Darwish titled "I Don't Want this Poem to Come to an End" and to discuss its structures and manifestations, exceeding the limits of the stylistic and abstract phenomenon to clarify the functional, technical and aesthetic value achieved by this touch in his poems. The research elaborates in examining the poetry of contrast and its functional analysis including both horizontal and vertical levels in Mahmoud Darwish's divan, who showed an aesthetic awareness in the employment of contrastive binaries so that its engages the reader's the most persistent dialectics.

Linguistic Residuals from the Yemeni Dialect of Arabic in the Jordanian Dialect of Arabic

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Authors: Saif aldain Alfugara
Keywords: Jordanian dialect of Arabic, Yemeni dialects of Arabic, Dialects.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 163 - 177

Abstract

This study investigates some words that linguistic resources have traced to the Yemeni dialects of Arabic, and that the researcher has found them used in Jordanian Arabic. The study reveals that some words that have been considered to be rooted in the Yemeni dialects of Arabic, have an extension in the Jordanian dialect of Arabic. The study shows that these words are used in Jordanian Arabic with the same interpretation that is documented in linguistic resources such as dictionaries. This extension of use might be due to the transmission of these words from one generation to the other. The study also shows that some Yemeni words existed in some old Semitic languages, and that some of these words might have their roots in the northern dialects that spread in Yemen after the domination of the northern dialects in Yemen. The study also shows that the words under investigation have developed both their semantic and morphological aspects; however, these developments have not affected the interpretation of these words.

Beneficiaries’ Opinions Toward the Staff and Programs of the Two Community Development Centers in Sweileh and Naour in Amman Directorate: An Evaluative Comparative Study

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Authors: Fatima Ali Al-Zubaidi , Khalil Darwish
Keywords: Beneficiaries’ Opinions, Community Organizing, Working Staff, Activities and Programs
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 178 - 194

Abstract

This study investigated opinions of 256 beneficiaries toward staff and services provided by the two community development centers in Sweileh and Naour. A social survey method was used where 256 beneficiaries of these programs were interviewed 132 in Sweileh and 124 in Naour. Data were gathered by a questionnaire and an interview. Findings were compared between both centers. Data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Two types of statistics were employed; descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations to describe the sample, and quantitative statistics, including Cronbach’s Alpha, One-way ANOVA, and t-test for independent samples. The level of significance was set at an alpha level of 0.05 or less. Findings showed that respondents held positive opinions toward each of the working staff and the activities in both centers. The mean value for Sweileh center was 4.56 toward the staff and 3.79 toward the activities. Similarly, the mean value for Naour center was 4.49 toward the staff and 4.27 toward the activities. Finally, the study provided some recommendations to improve the future status of the two centers

Analyzing the Spatial Distribution of Jordanian Cities Using GIS

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Authors: Rania Ja'far Quteishat , Kayed Abu Sabha
Keywords: Urbanizm, Spatial Distribution, GIS
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 195 - 220

Abstract

The phenomenon of urbanization in Jordan affected the structure of urban system of Jordan significantly, especially spatial distribution of cities. The study tried to answer questions related to the Jordanian city distribution; nature of size distribution; spatial distribution of cities and kind of factors affecting it. The study adapted the inductive analytical based on technique and quantitative methods. The study used several statistical methods and quantitative application and technology to identify the characteristics of the Jordanian urban system, such as methods of central tendency; measures of dispersion; Gini coefficient. The study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS); to build nucleus of a spatial database for the urban system in Jordan, using spatial and descriptive data from various documented sources. The program ArcInfo was used to analyze the spatial and metadata. The study used point analysis for phenomena such as: center, median, standard distance and standard directional ellipse distance, beside neighborhood index, chi Square and Robinson equation. The most important findings of the study and recommendations were that: Jordanian cities are not randomly distributed but rather have concentrated form in specific areas.The study also show that there is a discrepancy between cities of Jordan in terms of growth rates and patterns of their locations and functions. Also the study specify factors influencing city distribution in Jordan, such as environmental factors: aspects of the surface, soil, temperature, rainfall and distribution of resources.

The Problems of Teaching Dual and Plural between Arabic and English Languages

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Authors: Awni Subhi El.Faouri , Majed Ali Abu Ghalyoun
Keywords: Dual, Plural, Arabic and English Language
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 221 - 228

Abstract

The study tackles some of the problems facing non-native speakers of Arabic especially when learning the dual and the plural, and shows the importance of the Arabic language and the procedures that should be followed when comparing two languages in terms of ayntax or morphology and how such interaction may lead to difficulties in learning Arabic. The study also examines the relationship between error analysis and contrastive analysis and states some of the common reasons behind error making including language interference and the influence of the source and target languages. The study mainly discusses mistakes in forming the dual and the plural in Arabic since this subject does not exist or is used differently in other languages like English for example. The study concludes the importance of knowing the aspects of the Arabic language especially in terms of forming the dual and the plural and that when a non-native speaker of Arabic writes, he/she should not think of their own mother language. It also concludes that special attention should be made when teaching how to form the dual or the plural to non-native speakers of Arabic.

Turning Aside from Conformity in Arabic Sentence Analyzed Grammatical Study

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Authors: Yousuf Al-Anzi , Raed Al-Shalahi
Keywords: Conformity, Negligence, Grammatical Study.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 229 - 241

Abstract

This study addresses conformity indicting its definition, importance and places since it is a means to avoid confusion of grammar. If conformity was left, we call this negligence. This research was divided into three parts which are negligence in type, negligence in number and negligence in syntax. The study of this regard was conducted according to the evidences found in the holy Qura’n, Arab poetry and the controversial matters of syntax scholars and I tried to simplify these matters and make a comparison among them.

The Role of Jordanian Archaeological Museums in as Tourism Attracting

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Authors: Akram Atef Rawashdeh
Keywords: Jordanian Museums, Cultural Tourism, Tourism Attraction, Heritage Tourism.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 242 - 254

Abstract

This study aims of investigating the role of Jordanian archeological museums in attracting tourists and explaining their perceptions about this role in four museums: Jordan Archaeological Museum in Amman, the Archaeological Museum of Madaba, the Archaeological Museum of Umm Qais in Irbid, and the archaeological Museum of Jerash. The study involved a distribution of a questionnaire to a sample of foreign visitors to these museums (130 visitors). These questionnaires were analyzed by using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) to extract the frequencies, and means. It was concluded that museums in Jordan are not considered as a tourist attraction in itself, but as part of the tourism industry as a whole. The location of the museum played a key role in attracting visitors, in which tourist guides would lead to them instead of being included in tourism programs sold for tourists before their visit. The study also found that there is a lack of visitors statistic studies related to museums, so addition to that further development and caring are needed.

Color Symbolism in the Poetry of Bader Shaker Al-Sayyab: "The Rain Song" Collection as an Example

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Authors: abdelbaset al-zyoud , Thahir Zawahreh
Keywords: Color, Bader Shaker Al-Sayyab, The Rain Song.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 255 - 266

Abstract

This study aims at exploring color symbolism in the poetry of Bader Shaker Al-Sayyab by considering the poetry collection “The Rain Song” as an example-since it is the most relevant in this regard among the poet’s poems. The study explores different colors like black, red, green, white, and yellow. There are less used colors in the poems of the collection, but we focus on dominant ones. Color has given the poetic texts an artistic dimension and contributed to elevating the typical employment of color to a symbolic use. This, in turn, has given a psychological, intellectual, and cultural depth to the poet’s work and enriched the texts at artistic and semantic levels.

The Sense of Rhythm in Music Review of Some Theoretical Conceptions Concerning Its Development

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Authors: Tsonka Al Bakri , Mohamed Mallah
Keywords: Sense, Rhythm, Music
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 267 - 280

Abstract

The present research is an attempt to show some methods of approach for developing of the sense of rhythm in Music Education. This was achieved by presenting of some international theorists and few Easter European Musicologists, not translated into Arabic, who can be in high interest for pedagogues of Music in Jordan. Their works covered many of the problems or characteristics of the sense of rhythm, and showed attainments can be in assistant when working with Students of Music Departments in Jordan Universities. The researchers also present examples of working with difficult rhythmical samples. The theoretical base of explanation and bringing in attention of some ways of overcoming the difficulties in rhythm are mixed with pure practical and methodological samples in confirmation of the academically propositions presented in the research. These all approaches in combination, to enrich the concepts of working and development the sense of rhythm in Music.

The Popular Wells, the Classic Wells

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Authors: Abdullatif Al-Khaiat
Keywords: HG Wells; Popularity; Science Fiction; Great Art
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 281 - 292

Abstract

In H. G. Wells, two forces were struggling for predominance, the desire to please as a scientific romancer and a short story writer, and as even a mainstream novelist; and the desire to have his message heard and acted upon; the desire to maintain his great appeal as mainly a science fiction writer and his sense of responsibility to effect a real change of the world, to reform and to create a world state. Perhaps it is true that he was not gifted enough to write great mainstream novels, and so he was denied a place among the greatest masters of this genre, masters like his three friends Bennett, James and Conrad; but it is perhaps more certain that his urge to reform and put the world right, which was so insistent in his consciousness, and was present more and more as he grew older, was making his writing more and more didactic and heavy-handed, and consequently more and more unpopular. He was at his best when the educationist in him worked in unison with the imaginative artist, and that was true of his early science fiction. Wells is not alone in working under two or more opposed forces, although this was most detrimental in his case. A writer may occasionally decide to relax his/her rigorous watch over the quality of his/her product, and stoop to write some sensational though aesthetically superficial stories. This happened to Joseph Conrad, for instance, and so it happened to James; but that was rare in the case of these two writers. But in the case of Wells, though he was never careless about his art, the other preoccupations, as his role as a man with a message, were definitely having their toll on his art; 'message' often had the upper hand, and the 'aesthetic' aspect receded proportionately. Even so, he has left enough valuable work that it is quite possible that he may regain the distinguished place that he had enjoyed between 1895 and 1910.