Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 41, Issue 3

Countryside Songs (Subjects and Characteristics)

en
Authors: Ali Salem Shurman
Keywords: Songs, Countryside, Group Chanting.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 1 - 17

Abstract

Countryside song is regarded as one type of the Jordanian music. It gained its name from geographical area with its agricultural nature. Countryside song reflects life in village, and it is highly connected with the seasons of years (annual calendar), life cycle of human, working (seeding and harvest), ceremonies, wedding ceremonies, lamentation. In summery, countryside song forms a complete map for the existence of life in village. One of the features of countryside song is group chanting and the continuity, which links the present time with the past, furthermore, the mobility feature and the election by one group for a certain melody. These features were summarized due to what the work researcher has conducted a musical analysis for some of music forms. It was also noticed that the rhythmtic variety is an obvious feature for this sort of songs in which the rhythms are described as simple ones, 4/2, 4/3, 4/4. But there are some exceptional cases for this kind of songs such as, Bayat, Sikah. There is one “couple” or repeated sentence or two (A, A+, A, A+B). The researcher has taken some poetic scripts and concluded that the subjects of countryside songs were mainly about love and courtship in the first level, then comes patriotism, economic status, harvest, daily working, environment, nature and the good morals of the Jordanian citizen… etc.

Relationship of Social Frustration levels with Emotional Reactions Patterns, among A Sample of University of Jordan and King Faisal University Students

en
Authors: Mohammad M. Bani Younes
Keywords: Social Frustration levels, Emotional Reactions Patterns, The University of Jordan, King Faisal University.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 18 - 32

Abstract

The current study aimed at discovering the relationship between social frustration levels, and emotional reactions patterns among an available sample of students at the University of Jordan and King Faisal University at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, according to some demographic variables, The sample consisted of (426) male and female students registered for the first semester of the academic year (2011-2012) academic year. To achieve the goals of the study and to answer its questions two tools were used, the first one was the social frustration levels, and the second one is the Emotional Reactions Patterns Scales. After administration of the two tools, and collecting the needed data, and statistically analyzing it, the study, results showed existence of positive correlation relationship between the social frustration levels, and the euphoria emotional reaction pattern, Pearson correlation coefficient was (0.27). And there was negative correlation relationship between the social frustration levels, and dysphoria emotional reaction pattern, Pearson correlation coefficient was (-0.21) among the overall study sample individuals in light of the study results, the investigator recommends the importance of activating the psychological and educational guidance and counseling centers at both Universities to work at constructing aimful counseling programs to help suit an emotionally appropriate a tmpos-here an campus. That is to read both the social frustration levels, and the emotional reaction patterns. For that these variables are crucial in the University student personality.

Ethics of Hospitality in Pre-Islamic Poetry

ar
Authors: Omar Al-Fajawi
Keywords: Etiquette, Pre-Islamic Poetry, Hospitality
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 33 - 46

Abstract

Many neologisms have entered our life recently. These are being discussed at all levels and many people believe that some of them are of foreign origins. This paper investigates one of these neologisms، i.e.، the term etiquette، which is generally used to describe a gentleman code or any polite expression used by interlocutors. The study attempts to investigate the etymology of this term and its Arabic counterpart. It also purports to find answers to the following questions: is etiquette a science or not? And if it is so، is it established and systematized or not? If the answer is positive، who established and systematized it? Ancient Arabs or modern Arabs? The study arrived at a number of conclusions، the most important of which are: Arabic does have a corresponding lexical item for the term etiquette; etiquette is a deeply-rooted، long-established science in Arabic; and، this science had been found in pre-Islamic eras، where our ancestors utilized it in addressing kings، women، and guests.

Examples of Language Conversions between Origin and Development

ar
Authors: Hanan E. Amayreh
Keywords: Conversion, Development, Structure.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 47 - 59

Abstract

This research aims at studying some examples of conversions that can be seen in language expressions, with deference between the old standard shapes and the modern ones. It was depended on examples from Holy Quran because they represent a level of old language that was a basic for Arabic language rules. The study tries to describe the changes that happened to these examples, in our modern Arabic. This study uses a blank that aims to know which of these styles are right / wrong / week, according to the opinions of students who answered the blanks. The study reached to a conclusion. Is that there is a clear distance between language levels in Arabic, that encourages us to make a stop and to study the development

Abstract

The study aims to search in the biographical sources of the military commander Sewar, and clarifies its role in the face of the Crusaders and Zinkieys, He tries is to put this role in the right place, and the extent of its effect on the movement of the jihad against the Crusaders in the region, and accomplishments of military in confronting them, and then tries to explain the reasons for the neglect of simple sources except for his work, and what is the fate of those personal silent source indicate his end.

Teaching Masculine and Feminine for Non-Arabic Speakers

ar
Authors: Hanan E. Amayreh , Ala' M. Hasan
Keywords: Masculine and Feminine, Learning, Non Arabic Speakers.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 74 - 89

Abstract

This study aims at shedding light on the problem of masculinization and feminization that non-Arabic speaking learners encounter. It also aims at providing a general frame of this problem in a way to introduce suitable solutions to some of its problematic issues. Masculinization and feminization are controversial topic and what leads to this crucial confusion is that masculinization and feminization are a multi-faceted problem; as some parts of this problem relate to phonetics and other parts to semantics, so it is really difficult to find a decisive line when it comes to differentiate between the female and male’s names because we do not find in many female names articles that indicate their feminization. The importance of this subject is maximized because it is intersected with other grammatical and morphological aspects of the language such as number, plural forms, minimization, demonstrative articles, relative pronouns... etc. This study is an analytical one and the researcher examines the material of masculinization and feminization as it is presented in two curricula that are taught to non- Arabic-speaking learners which are al-Kitab fi Taalum al-Arabyya (learning Arabic), published by George Town University, and al-Arabyya li-natiqin bi ghairiha (Teaching Arabic language for Non-Arabic- Speaking Learners), published by University of Jordan. In the light of this examination, the researcher conducts an intermediate- level exam on the subject of masculinization and feminization that shows the competence of the non- Arabic-speaking learners. She also monitors the mistakes related to masculinization and feminization in the students’ writings, and then she concludes to the results and examines them statistically. In the light of the study’s results, some solutions are suggested alongside with their mechanism and the proper ways of applying them practically by making use of the analysis of the study’s results and criticizing the mechanism of dealing with masculinization and feminization in the previous mentioned curricula.

Salafis and Democracy in the Era of Arab Democratic Revolutions

en
Authors: Mohammad Suleiman Aburumman
Keywords: Salafis, Democracy.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 90 - 102

Abstract

The Arab-Democratic Revolutions era represents a transformation stage in the Salafi Movements path within the Arab World. Many Salafi groups and movements have entered the field of politics and political parties. Moreover, they participated in the elections of the Egyptian Parliament in 2011 and announced their intention to establish their own political parties in other countries. The involvement of Salafis in elections and politics calls into question about the range of transformations per their ideological discourse in committing to the notion of democracy; taking into consideration salafists voicing their acceptance of the democratic game or the democratic system, given its description as a final system and abandoning their previously opposing or rejectful positions. This study discusses the transformation of the Salafi discourse towards democracy, and the new role of the salafi political dimension.

An Investigation of the Importance of Place and Event in the Prophet’s Raids "may God Bless Him"

ar
Authors: Hala Beidas , Shawkat A. Darwish
Keywords: Place, Badr, Uhud, Hunayn, Taif.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 103 - 121

Abstract

This study highlights and investigates the importance of “place” in some of the Prophet’s raids. It also considers the role played by “place” in achieving victory. Place is a crucial pillar in the life of both the individual and society [ for man fuses into the crucible of place its horizons, and overlooks both place and time. While the role of “time” is symbolised by the month of Ramadan, “place” is represented by the holy cities of Mecca, Madina and Jerusalem. Man is attached to place and yearns especially to encounter reminiscences of “victory”. This longing becomes linked to “place”, thus becomes familiar to man. The research highlights the importance of “place” in the chronicles of Islam especially in choosing the scenes of raids. We follow up on these raids to recall reminiscences about them. The place is worth remembering for it was in a theatre of events that took place in their realm. Recalling the memory of “place” establishes a basis for a renewed vision which vividly represents the reality which we live.

The Renewing of Sayings In Some Issues Of Unrestricted Object In Arabic

ar
Authors: Omar Okasha
Keywords: Arabic Grammar, Unrestricted Object, Types of Unrestricted Object, Deep Structure of Unrestricted Object.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 122 - 136

Abstract

The study investigates three issues relating to the unrestricted object and to resurrect these issues from their origins. In the first issue, the unrestricted object, the added and descriptive, termed in the classical view as clarifying the type of the name, is only an unrestricted object only clarifying the type only. The researcher attempted in this study to give an argument for the purposes of the real grammar scholars by claiming that the unrestricted object is clarifying the type. The second debated issue is concerned with the reasons behind grammar scholars motivations to infer the ( miṯla-like) without ( Kāf in the original verb) in the implicit structure of the unrestricted object as in the following example: (sirtu saira al->Amīr). In the issue, the researcher claims that the likehood of using (Kāf) in the unrestricted object without (miṯla-like) for several considerations and reasons. The third issue was clarified by the researcher in his attempt to explain the implicit structure of the unrestricted object which is more correct in his opinion for the this type of speech ( the added unrestricted object clarifying the type); in addition to providing some critics to the grammar scholars in their estimation to this structure.

Emotional Intelligence and its Relation to the Stressors of life among King Saud University Students

ar
Authors: Abdullah A. Al-Zahrani
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Life Stressors, Gender, Students.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 137 - 157

Abstract

The aim of current study was to identify more life stressors, and the dimensions of emotional intelligence prevalent from the point of view of male and female students at King Saud University. Also, it comes to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and the nature of life stressors faced by students at King Saud University. The Study tries to identify the differences in emotional intelligence and life stressors for students of King Saud University, which attributed to sex, age, grade point average, and the type of study (scientific, literary). The study sample consisted of 426 male and female students at King Saud University. The results showed that there are significant differences between emotional intelligence and life stressors faced by students at King Saud University. It turns out that there are differences in emotional intelligence between males and females in favor of females; While there are no differences in both the type of study and age. Finally, the study shows that there are differences of stressors in a lifetime for the age group between 19-25; While there are no differences in both type, the type of study.

Political Dimensions of the State’s General Budget

ar
Authors: Khaled Al-Edwan , Mohammed K. Shar’a
Keywords: General Budget, Political Control, Legislative Institution
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 158 - 176

Abstract

The Study aims to determine budget’s political dimensions. Its significance stems from the fact that it covers a topic- from a political perspective - in which Economics, Administration Science and Politics overlap. Further, it benefits from other science to explore the various dimensions of the phenomenon under study. It also discusses the political significance of the legislative institutions’ dealing with the state’s general budget, without denying the artistic dimension. To achieve the objectives of the study, the institutional approach and analytical approach were used. The study concluded the following findings: 1. The state’s General Budget includes several political dimensions in addition to its legislative, financial and artistic dimensions. The most important political dimension was the disapproval of the Legislative institutions on the project of the Law of the General Budget. Thus, politically speaking, would affect the confidence in the government. 2. The General Budget is a political mirror that reflects the power scale between the legislative institution and the Executive Institution. 3. The political system of the State has a role in determining the political dimensions of the General Budget. The Study concluded with a number of recommending actions. Some of them at the level of the legislative institution and others at the level of the executive institution.

The Effect of Ghareeb Al-Hadeath Books on Arabic Dictionaries

ar
Authors: Hussein Ghawanmeh , Mahmoud Obaidat
Keywords: Ghareeb, Al-Hadeath, Dictionaries
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 177 - 185

Abstract

The aim of this research is to study the effect of Ghareeb Al-Hadeath books on the Arabic dictionaries. The effect of Ghareeb Al-Hadeath on the present dictionaries can be summarized in two points: - The linguistics material presents dictionaries depended on Al-Ghareeb books in their linguistics material, such as in Lissan Al-Arab, that made one of his five main resources: Ibn Al-Atheer’s “Al-Nihaya” book. - linguistics material classification method. Ghareebayn book was first applied on preceding Azzamakhshari’s book Asaas Al Balaghah. In the future, studies have shown that Ghareeb Al-Hadeath books are considered as a main resource for the historical Arabic language dictionary, concentrating on the semantic development of Al Hadeath terms, which present a limited phase in the Arabic language.

Urban Transportation Networks' Systems in the City of Amman

ar
Authors: Omar Mohammed Dayaflah
Keywords: Transportation Planning, Effectiveness, Transportation Networks, Urban Analysis, Amman City.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 186 - 206

Abstract

With the continuous increase in urban population and the requirements of modern urban life, transportation systems become progressively unable to achieve an appropriate level of service in urban areas. In order to achieve the main objective of this study which is represented in the analysis of the situation and the performance of the transport system in the city of Amman, the study applied inductive and descriptive analytical quantitative approach, where the study found multiple results, including: the Systems urban transport in the city of Amman is almost consistent with theories of Systems of urban transport, but the efficiency and effectiveness indicators were very low. Therefore, the study recommends the necessity of redistributing the gains of development and creating new development poles in areas with less density and urbanization.

Verification of Seven Letters (Manuscript) for Abifiher Mahmoud Mohammad Shaker

ar
Authors: Ibrahim Al-Kofahi
Keywords: Verification, Manuscript, Mahmoud Shaker
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 207 - 224

Abstract

It is no longer a secret how personal messeges which were written by the writer to his sheikhs, teachers, students and friends take a great importance to signify the hidden areas of the psyche of his temperament, and his life and scientific experiences so no offence, they are part of the history of his writer, up to the point that his studies cannot be completed away from this aspect of his literary, which is usually filled with men depth secrets, and pen bouts. But unfortunaltely, the heritage of the Egyptian writer's Abi Fiher Mahmoud Mohammad Shaker (1909-1996), which contains these personal letters, still up to date scattered here and there no one to take care of it. Collecting and publshing it to the people correctly in order to the Preseverd them from loss then to be in reach of the hands of teachers and scholars. Hence this paper comes to fill vulnerability aspects of Shaker literature activity which is still unknown for many people as he seeks to achieve the seven letters (Manuscript) who had addressed the two of his students and friends, Dr. Nasser A Idden Alassad (jordan) and Dr. Abdelleh Bin Abdelrahman Isselan (Saudi).

Term Construction Methods in the Arabs Rhetorical and Critical Heritage

ar
Authors: Ibtisam Abo Mahfooz
Keywords: Constraction Methods, Heritage, Term.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 225 - 239

Abstract

The current study discusses " The term construction methods in the Arabs rhetorical and critical heritage from the second century AH until the fourth century, and tries to clarify the relationship between the term and the mechanics of construction, also aims to highlight the efforts of critics, early, in the term through renamed or install the old name to take its place in the language of science. This comes in a form of an introduction, prelusion, and two chapters. The introduction explains the subject of study, motivation, approach , and its questions. The prelusion explains the semantic meaning to the term, the first chapter shows how critics took care of the term and the evolution achieved through the books in the Arabs rhetorical and critical heritage. The second chapter discusses term construction methods, which based on the metaphor, the derivation and enclosures. The study tries to answer three questions: - Why critics took care of the term? - Was the term created by critics or it was known at their predecessors? - What are the methods of creating the rhetorical term in the Arabs rhetorical and critical heritage from the second century AH until the fourthcentury?

T. S. Eliot's Impact on Izzaddin Al-Manasreh's Poems

ar
Authors: Imad A. Dhmour
Keywords: Izzaddin Al-Manasreh, T. S. Eliot's, Poems
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 240 - 251

Abstract

"Izzaddin Al-manasreh" a Palestinian freedom- fighter poet, he has got a rich heritage that was developed by foreign literature interculturalization. This study uncovers the impact of the American poet T. S. Eliot on Al-manasreh's poems. This impact strengthens the intellectuality in Al-manasreh's productions, which unveils the bilateral perceptions on life to enhance the rich heritage where it could be flushed back in a new vision.

Computing Description of Nominal Sentence (A Study in Sentence that begins with first person single pronoun while having indefinite predicates, Single, Jāmid, and not Iḍāfa to a Single Masculine Word)

ar
Authors: Nibal Nabeel Nazzal
Keywords: Nominal Sentence, Anā Ghulām, Duality of Analysis and Generating, Analytical Description, Computing Patterns.
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 252 - 275

Abstract

Computers do not possess the same ability of natural conjecture as human beings. This fact motivated scientists to computerize various language structures: phonetics, grammar, phenology and semantics. The primary aim of describing nominal sentences in this research is to reinforce computer programs and to increase its ability in producing language forms. To this end, the research has provided a description of sentences that begin with the first person pronoun (Anā) along with its predicate when it is indefinite, single, jāmid, and not iḍāfa to a single masculine word. It has provided two types of analysis for the sentence (Anā ghulām). The first analysis pertains to syntactic proponents (the subject of a nominal (sequential) sentence) along with some nominal sentence cases, using tree-style analysis. The second type of analysis is a generative analysis which adds potential structural forms before, in-between, and after the sentence in order to provide the computer with fixed patterns. Therefore, if similar patterns are entered into the computer, it can identify them according to their patterns.

Abstract

The French Comparative Magazine issued a volume (no: 298, 2/2002) entitled The Parallels. In this volume, the magazine aimed at paving the way for the concept of Parallel in between the different arts. This parallel reflects parity between cultures and litarts, and keeps them in a case of permanent dialogue with each other. Therefore, it can be considered as a new constituent attempt through which they aimed to develop the inherited concepts in their historical school. Perhaps, they meant to bypass some other concepts especially, the concept of influence or searching for cultural sources. As parallelism takes into account the question of parity (equality) and keeps the value of the cultural content of the literary text, at least in our Arab literature, this research tries to make use that keeps- for each side of the comparison- its privacy, its traditions and its history. This process will consider Counterfeiters1953, a play by Mahmoud Taimour in comparison with the French text, Counterfeiters of Money 1925 by André Gide. This experimental study will be run within two phases: the first will be dedicated to specifying the concept and its dimensions in the comparative literature. The second phase will examine the similarities and differences. In addition, it will pinpoint the motives, lying underneath in both texts, beyond human falsehood. This procedure will be conducted through introducing varied images of human falsehood considering them human examples. To conclude, parallelism -in this study which was based upon the concept of regroupement between cultures and Arts, will justify regroupement and confluence but not influence.

Book of Jihad for Al-Sulami (500 AH / 1106 AD) Study of His Method and Sources of the Islamic Conflict - the Frankish Crusader

ar
Authors: Isam Mustafa Oqleh , Yousef Bani Yasin
Keywords: Crusader Wars, Jerusalem, Al-Sulami, Jihad, Bilad-Alsham
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 303 - 319

Abstract

This study deals with Islamic heritage that associated with the era of Crusaders wars, depending on the (Book of Jihad), through research investigator in the book and its sources and methodology, and his view to the conflict of Islamic-Crusader war, especially as the first source we got so far handled that era. The study tries to identify the extent of absorption of the idea of the campaigns on the Islamic world and the value presented in his book and what strategies they made to restore the Islamic world, and the Levant, especially for the lead in that conflict, and the restoration of land that took place under occupation.

The Semiotics Introductions "Hashem Gharaibeh As A Sample"

ar
Authors: Nizar Qbelat
Keywords: : Semiotics, Thresholds, Introductions
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 320 - 331

Abstract

This paper is an attempt to reveal the semiotics, thresholds and narrative introductions as well as approaching the latter to the concept of prologue. Furthermore, this paper sheds the light on the role played by the narrative introduction as it cooperates with other textual thresholds and with all that which falls under the umbrella of the concept of parallel text such as hard covers, subtitles, introductory statements, dedications, subtitles and margins. Moreover, this paper investigates the significance of those thresholds and narrative introductions as well as their relationship within the structure of the novel and their impact on the text and on the content of discourse. Both are strictly related to the act of narration and to the narrative reality since both of them create a strategic entrance to the novel. Gharaibeh was one of the writers who believe that the past can be formulated in the literature again.

Foucault's Descending Individuation: The Unprivileged Under Panoptic Gaze in Shakespeare and Godwin

en
Authors: Ahmad Mohammed Bani Salameh
Keywords: Foucault, Descending, Individuation, Disciplinary, Surveillance, Godwin, Shakespeare
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 332 - 336

Abstract

This paper presents new critical insights into two selected literary works from the English literature, Shakespeare's Measure for Measure and William Godwin's Caleb Williams, in light of Michel Foucault's "descending individuation" in Discipline and Punishment. Through the lens of this theory, this study illumines these writers' scathing critique of "descending individuation" in their cultures in which surveillance of individuals goes in an inverse relationship with their socio-economic statuses-namely, the lower one's social and economic station is, the more liable s/he becomes to panoptic gaze. This paper shows these authors' dissatisfaction with the flawed justice system of their culture, because surveillance, usually a disciplinary law-enforcement strategy, could backfire if enforced in a descending, prejudiced fashion.

Abstract

The Constitution of South Africa is the fundamental guideline determining the way the country should be managed and governed. At the time of its drafting, the main aim of the Constitution was to heal the divisions of the past and establish a society based on social justice, democratic values and basic human rights. However, the use of certain South African languages has been subjected to limitations, making the full implementation of some of the provisions of the Constitution impossible. The Constitutional provisions, especially as they relate to the indigenous South African languages, have given rise to the debate concerning the use of the term “practicable”. Taking sections 29 and 35 of the Constitution as the point of departure, in this article I explore the use of this qualifier, the employment of which sometimes leads to misunderstandings and uncertainties with regard to language rights.

L’approche de la sexualité féminine dans quelques contes des Mille et une Nuits et quelques fabliaux

fr
Authors: Adnan Smadi
Keywords: littérature médiévale, conteurs, sexualité, stéréotypes
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 347 - 353

Abstract

La littérature arabe classique montre un rapport au corps, au désir et à l’expression de la sexualité. Cette littérature fait de la sexualité un « phénomène d’éveil et de réveil». Elle place le mariage comme lieu d’accomplissement du couple. Elle se caractérise aussi par la prédominance des stéréotypes concernant la vie affective et sexuelle de la femme tant sur le plan du comportement que de l’expression. De nombreux contes des Mille et une Nuits et quelques fabliaux mettent en scène des représentations sociales de sexualité et avancent que la femme est par essence source de désordre, créature de ruse, de perfidie, incapable de résister à son désir, esclave de sa concupiscence, éternellement insatisfaite. De fait, cet article s'articulera autour d'une double interrogation : dans quelle mesure les textes classiques valident-ils cette perception? Le désir est-il un outil positif dans la constitution d’une image épanouie et puissante de la femme ou bien la misogynie des conteurs réduit-elle cette image à une condamnation du féminin et de ses élans sexuels?

Abstract

L'organisation des idées reflète un écrit cohésif et cohérent. Faute de quoi, l'écrit devient désordonné et ambigu. De ce fait, nous avons procédé à l'étude d'un discours écrit par des apprenants saoudiens qui ont passé trois ans dans l'apprentissage de la langue française au sein du département de français à l'université du Roi Saoud, et la plupart d'entre eux ont séjourné en France durant un an scolaire dans le cadre d'une bourse d'étude afin d'améliorer leurs compétences communicatives orales et écrites en français. Toutefois, ces étudiants sont encore incapables d'organiser les informations dont ils possèdent. Leurs enseignants, dont je fais partie, avouent que l'ensemble des écrits de ces étudiants restent ambigus. Sur le plan formel, le texte est souvent "correct", mais la formulation en est souvent boiteuse et la qualité de l'écrit reste, bien évidemment, faible. Cela se manifeste par des erreurs syntaxiques au niveau de la phrase et des erreurs pragmatiques, au niveau global du discours bloquant la communication. Est-ce que ces difficultés auxquelles s'achoppent les apprenants sont dues à une question linguistique ou bien à une question pédagogique ?, et est-ce que la langue maternelle joue un rôle important dans la mise en idée lors de la rédaction ? A la lumière du résultat obtenu de cette étude, nous allons procéder à l'élaboration de certaines stratégies que doit respecter l'apprenant lors de la rédaction.