Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 42, Issue 1 Supplement 1

Time Indication of Nouns in Arabic: Present Participle, Past Participle and Gerund, as Models

en
Authors: Mohammad Hassan Qwaqzeh
Keywords: Tense, Present Participle, Past Participle, Gerund, Action
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 1 - 19

Abstract

This study is designed to shed light on an illusion that many learners of Arabic could have when studying the concept of tense in Arabic. This illusion manifests itself in two ways: the first way is that Arabic has limited approaches to indicate tense, only by using the three verbal constructions, namely the past verb, the present verb and order of command verbs. However, the fact is that Arabic has many approaches which can be used to indicate time. For example, time can be inferred through: abstract verbs, augmented verbs, gerund, present participle and past participle. The second way goes to the idea that says time is related only to verbs, not to nouns while, in fact, nouns can indicate tense in many contexts. Strictly speaking, this study aims to clarify how nouns like: gerund, present participle and past participle can indicate time in different contexts. Accordingly, this study implemented the descriptive method through which some standard Arabic passages can be investigated in order to find out concrete examples that show how nouns can indicate tense. This study has limited its scope for examining some nouns (gerund, present participle and past participle), while verbs can be used where necessary.

Phenomenon of Repetition in Mohammad Lafi’s Collection of Poems “Lam Ya’odd Daraj UlOmri: Akhdhar”

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Authors: Ahmad Ghalib Al-Kharsheh
Keywords: Repetition, Lafi’s Collection, Poems
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 20 - 30

Abstract

This paper aims at exploring the phenomenon of repetition in Mohammad Lafi’s collection of poems “Lam Ya’odd Daraj ulOmri Akhdhar” "The Steps of Life was No Longer Green". It is an attempt to identify the nature of this phenomenon and how such phenomenon wasneatly and smoothly constructed and employed by the poet, which makes it an artistic tool that serves the poetic text showing the poet’s inclination to this stylistic pattern alone. This phenomenon of repetition is seemingly stylistic, appearing in the linguistic surface structure and interpreted to produce a contextual deep structure. Therefore, after a prefaceto this phenomenon, this paper studies the patterns of repetition in this collection of poems, represented by the repetition of the letters, the repetition of the words, and the repetition of the sentences or phrases. In addition, the paper is trying to show the role of these repetitive patterns in the formation of poetic contexts that have the ability to embody the poet's experience through expressing his psyche, thoughts and concerns. The research also shows the role of developing the poem, uniting its parts, and loading it with the rhythmic flow enriched with poetry. And finally, the research asserts the prominent role of repetition in affecting the receiver to attract his/her attention to live within the poetic event depicted by the poet.

Arabian Gulf Students Studying in the Jordanian Universities and Their Problems from their Point of View

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Authors: J. Al-Sa’aydih , A. Al-Awawadeh , Hana Al-Hadidi
Keywords: Arabian Gulf Students, Jordanian Universities
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 31 - 46

Abstract

This study aimed to explore the Academics, Social and psychological problems faced Arabian Gulf Students studying in the Jordanian Universities located in Balqa Province (Balqa Applied University and Amman Privet University) and to determine individual differentiations in dealing with those problems based on specific factors. The study used a questionnaire built and developed by researchers to collect the data from the study sample which consisted of 200 Arabian Gulf Students. The study result showed that, psychological problems come first then the Academics and Social problems. The most common Academic problem is unsatisfied with the field of study, the high coast of accommodations comes as the top of social problem, meanwhile anxiety and depression due to missing their families is the major psychological problems faced those students. Beside that the study results did not find significant differences at (0.05 ≥ α) in academics problem due to students (university, age & monthly income) but results find that there is significant difference in psychological problems due to students (university, age & monthly income). Also the results did not find significant differences in Academics, Social and psychological problems refer to student gender. Results comes to show the absence of a significant differences Academics and psychological problems refer to marital statues but this significant differences is noted in Social problems refer to marital statues.

The Political Theory of Al-Farabi A Study in the Relation between Al-Fayd with Civil Politics

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Authors: Derar Ali Bani Yaseen
Keywords: A Farabi, Political Philosophy, Al Fayed Theory, Civil Science
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 47 - 59

Abstract

This study mainly discussed the political theory of Al-Farabi, especially the relation between al fayed theory to civil politics. The researcher traced the origins of Al farabi's philosophy as it appears in his main books and letters. The researcher argues that Al farabi gives a great importance to political philosophy in which it constitutes an original part of all his philosophy. Also he concluded that al faraby's political theory has a reflection on his moral political ideas to Al fayed theory and the hierarchy of the existence (Al mawjudat) from other side. Al Farabi did not isolate the civil science and politics from the other parts of his philosophy, mainly because he believes in the union of the human rationality. Finally the researcher finds that Al fayed theory has its logical, epistemological and moral indications as well as its indications on constituting the political fundamentals.

The Efficacy of Training Program for Improving Self-Control and Reducing Isolation Among Adolescent Students

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Authors: Ibrahim Bajes Ma’ali
Keywords: Training Program, Self-Control, Isolation
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 60 - 71

Abstract

The study aimed at investigating the efficacy of a training program to improve self-control and reduce isolation among a sample of sixty adolescent students. The sample of the study was randomly divided into two groups (experimental, control). The experimental group was subjected to the training program which consisted of eight sessions. With an average of one session a week, each session lasted (45) minutes, while the control group wasn’t subjected to any program. To achieve the purpose of this study, the self-control and isolation scales were used as pre and post tests. The results of ANCOVA indicated significant differences between the experimental group and the control group, in improvement the self-control, also there were no significant differences in isolation between experimental group and the control group.

The Image of Sea in Mahmoud Darwish Poems...Beirut Sea as a Model

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Authors: Muhammad M. Al-Dkheel
Keywords: The Image of Sea, Beirut sea, Morden Poem, Mahmoud Darweah
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 72 - 78

Abstract

This study aims to show both life and death through image of sea. The Sea is considered a vital element in Mahmoud Darweesh vision from through (Madaah al_zaal al_allay) and (Hesar le_madah al_bahar), especially in Beirut Sea to become the semantic polarization. It is the symbol of separation and departure. So, the concept of sea expands and attracts the concept of leaving through the journey of oils without the intervention of God in shortening the period of this journey. This leaving found no one to prohibit and no one that makes its consequences easier. The current study addressed the image of sea, its consequences and changes at Mahmoud Darweesh and his rich poetic production, especially Beirut sea and its artistic, intellectual and emotional indications.

Cognitive Transformations of Realism and Liberalism In Contemporary International Relations Theory

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Authors: Wassfi Aqel
Keywords: International Relations Theory, New Realism, New Liberalism
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 79 - 98

Abstract

This Study examined the epistemological transformations of Realism and Liberalism in the context of the new direction in theorizing in international relations. It examined each theory by itself in terms of the new development in IR, then compared these theories with each other in the light of such development on the bases of the unity of methods and levels of analysis. The study reached the following conclusion; there have been epistemological transformations in both theories caused by the international changes in the post- Cold War era, These transformations came to enhance the ability of both theories to deal with the new changes in international system.

Poetics of Contrast:"Alaqadriahlilazmi" of Al-Mutanabbi as a Model

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Authors: Mohammad K. Khalayleh
Keywords: Al-Mutanabbi, Contrast
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 99 - 109

Abstract

This study is based on an attempt believes that the poetic text is an open text for a reading after reading. It is an attempt to endeavor the poetical text from inside, so it has chosen a poem for a laureate Arab poet: Al-Mutanabbi. The attempt has offered a theoretical introduction to poetics of contradiction, then a practical introduction which endeavored the text from inside. This attempt perceived the effectiveness of contradiction in the text structure, and how this contradiction created a poetic environment, and built a pattern of the praised person. This study concluded that the text remains open for progressive readings, and this attempt is an admissible attempt in reading the poetical text.

The Behavior of Merchant's toward the Development of the Commercial Areas in Amman

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Authors: Reem Al-Ziud , Naseem Barham
Keywords: Behavior, Merchant, Amman
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 110 - 133

Abstract

This study tackles the issue of the development of the commercial areas through the employment of "Demography of Firms Approach" to analyze the mobility of the commercial enterprises in Amman. The company demography reasoning is based on the study of the economic activities of the company and their relationship to the concept of the family. In other words, companies are like families, small size businesses behave like a family, whereas, big businesses behave like an extended family. In this regard, enterprises undergo "birth, growth, immigration and may be death (closure). The effect of economic and political factors has been considered to explain the development of the city commercial areas of Amman. To achieve this aim, the researcher has chosen the commercial areas in Greater Amman and a random sample of merchants consisting of 106 members distributed over 8 commercial areas: Downtown, Wihdat, Marka, Shmeisanee, Suwaifiyyeh, Abdon, Rabia and Suwaileh. The study has come to important conclusions, such as: There is a difference in the concentration of commercial activity due to geographic location. Similar to large cities, the greatest commercial activity was found in the central business district of the city, Amman. Furthermore, the growth and expansion of the city and its population led to a new situation where the old commercial center became too far from consumers, especially in the field of services. In consideration of the fact that shopping is limited to one major type, which is that the consumer goes to the produces, it became imperative that the producer, the merchant in this case, should go to the consumer by creating branches that meet the needs of consumers. This will lead to creating new business centers in the new commercial areas. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher recommends the establishment of cooperation between Greater Amman Municipality, research institutions and Amman Chamber of Commerce, to found a data base that will provide the information needed. This study analyzed the foundation and growth of commercial areas from the point of view of the actors. Therefore, a study based on the behavior of the consumers is highly recommended.

Methods of Teaching Arabic for Speakers of Other Languages-between Theory and Practice

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Authors: Nadia M. Al-Asaaf
Keywords: Curriculum, Teaching, Methods, Arabic for Speakers of other Languages
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 134 - 143

Abstract

Teaching methods have a great importance in the educational process; it may lead to success or failure of the curriculum, the method of teaching is one of the most important factors in the success of the educational process, the educational process is based on the student is the main axis of any process. Teaching methods are various and different in style. We cannot say that a certain method is better than the other, because each method has advantages and disadvantages, and the teacher should choose the method that agree with the subject studied. Through this study we can explore the methods used in teaching Arabic curriculum for speakers of other languages, and we will shed the light on its differences and best qualities.

Awareness Reality of the University of Jordan Students to the Concepts of National Education and their Degree of Representation

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Authors: N. Nusairat , M. Al-Kadri
Keywords: Level of Awareness, Concept, National Education, National Education Concepts, Representation, Degree of Representation
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 144 - 167

Abstract

This study aimed at revealing the “awareness reality of the University of Jordan students to the concepts of national education and their degree of representation”. This study utilized the analytical descriptive methodology by collecting data and information related to the analysis and subject of the study. The study population consisted of 1783 bachelor level students at the University of Jordan from all scientific and humanitarian faculties who are studying the national education course. Furthermore, a study sample of 800 male and female students were selected randomly from the University of Jordan students who studied the national education course during the summer semester of the 2011/2012 academic year. In view of these results, the study recommended the necessity for adopting of national education strategy to offer programs that inculcates the concepts of national education in Jordanian universities in a way that commensurate with the modern education guidelines for teaching national education

Semantic Relations in "Al-Ebel" Book By Al-Asma'i

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Authors: Yasmine Al-Mousa , Basma Al-Rawashdeh
Keywords: Semantic Relations, Al-Ebel, Al-Asma'i
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 168 - 176

Abstract

This research aims to identify the authors of "Al-Ebel" and clarify its position in the Arab semantic lesson and to employ modern semantic field theory in the study of the "Al-Ebel" book. It also monitor similarities between linguistic attention in the "Al-Ebel" book. and the modern linguistics. And located this research within the Department reconsider Heritage Books Arabic language according to curriculum analysis lingual talk, they try to shed light on the "Al-Ebel" book. from the point of view of the Linguistic modern so as to form some of the features theory semantic Arab and put it in the system theory linguistic world. The research found a set of results which are: 1. Mention Lgel recipes "Al-Ebel" and Nautea regarding a statement the physical and moral qualities, and the stages of life and ages, and colors, and others. 2. This book included a wide range of words relating to regard camels field. 3. The presence of internal rankings can be called fields, and insert it under the door such as: It will be recalled from the "Al-Ebel's" colors.

Sybawayh’s Second Level of Linguistic Use

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Authors: Jaza' Al-Masarweh
Keywords: Sybaway, Arabi, Syntactic Criteria
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 177 - 188

Abstract

This research reveals that Sybawayah was aware of the different levels of linguistic use in Arabic. This awareness is shown through studying one of Sybawayh’ syntactic and evaluative judgments that he used to use in order to judge one of the linguistic patterns. The research determines the exact meaning of’ Arabi’, depending on what Sybawaih himself said. This study identifies Sibawayh's intended meaning of this term “Arabi” based on his writings, by comparing Sibawyajh's Arabi standard with his other linguistic criteria such as the strength, the origin, the quality, the abundance of words, etc. It has been found out that Sybawyhh used the same judgment on the second level of linguistic use levels. The research also shows many of the linguistic uses that were described by Sybawayah as Arabi.the researcher has divided them depending on their syntactic subjects, he used the descriptive analytical method.

Young and Old Age in the Poetry of Andalusia: A Psychological Objective Study

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Authors: Raghda Zboon
Keywords: Old, Young, Poetry of Andalusia
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 189 - 210

Abstract

The paper aimed to understand the images of both the young and the old in the poetry of Andalusia. It aimed to study the poetry that tackled this topic, analyzing it objectively and psychologically. It showed that each stage has its own features that distinguish it from the other stage from the physical, psychological, and social perspectives. The poetry of the young has a lot of optimistic incentives that make a person open to life, fond of it trying to achieve what is aspired for of hopes and anticipations. On the other hand poetry of the old is full of complaints, expressing what a person suffers in this stage of physical, psychological, and social complaints. For this reason, we find poets comparing these two stages favoring young age over the old and hoping that days would go back so that they would relive young age for ever. The hardest difficulties that poets complained of were their body weaknesses, inability to work, their being rejected by women due to weakness and old age, in addition to their fear of the approaching death. Their poetry showed their attempt to come close to God, their reflection upon their past and their censuring themselves for the short comes, warning of their approaching end, and using grey hair as a device to prevent themselves from doing whatever is inappropriate for this age, calling upon themselves to repent and plead to Allah for forgiveness.

Psychological Stresses of the Media in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia on the light of Some Variables

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Authors: Salman bin Mutlak Subai
Keywords: Psychological Stresses, Journalists, Saudi Arabia
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 211 - 231

Abstract

The current study aims at exploring the level of the Media in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia on the light of some variables, therefore to achieve the goal of this study, the researcher developed a scale to measure psychological stresses among journalists, the scale were verified validity and reliability, Which has been applied to (374) males and females who works in the institutions various media in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The study results shows that the total score of the psychological stresses and dimensions have come under average of psychological stresses level, vocational dimension ranked first, then the psychological dimension, and the social dimension at last rank, as the results indicated the presence of statistically significant effect of the variable qualification; terms of the level of stress among diploma was higher than others. There was also a statistically significant effect of variable experience; terms of the level of stress experienced (10) years or more higher than the others; and the presence of a statistically significant variable type institution; since working in the television sector suffering from psychological stress is higher than others, as shown by the results there were differences statistically significant for social stresses field due to the variable sex; he suffers males more than females in the social stresses field, and the presence of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of psychological stresses and professional due to the variable qualification, where suffering diploma holders of stresses in those areas is higher than others. The presence of statistically significant differences in stresses more than the social, psychological and vocational attributed to experience, where the suffering experienced (10) or more years of social stresses more than others did.

Revisiting George Bush's Middle East Peace Initiative of 1991: Lessons Learned After 22 Years

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Authors: Hasan Mohammed Al-Momani
Keywords: Arab-Israeli Conflict, Peace Initiative, Motives and Willingness, Conducive Conditions, Pre-negotiation, Timing, Inclusiveness
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 232 - 245

Abstract

This study aims to revisit and analyze George Bush's Middle East Peace initiative of 1991 and the lessons that could be learned after 22 years of its initiation. This paper argues that since Bush’s Middle East peace initiative of 1991 was successful in the sense that it generated a comprehensive peace process between concerned Arab parties and Israel for the first time, many lessons would be learned. Chief among them is the importance and the necessity of active American involvement, the importance of inclusiveness, significance of the pre-negotiation stage, the importance of timing and the regional and international context as well as the importance of motives and willingness. The major bulk of this study is a discussion to Bush's peace proposal of 1991, motives of the concerned parties to accept such initiative as well as key conditions behind the success of this peace initiative. To achieve such end this paper has employed a case study approach that would analyze primary and secondary literature on this subject matter so to understand different variables and dynamics that influenced this initiative. This paper concludes that since Bush’s Middle East peace initiative of 1991 was successful, many lessons would be learned such as: the importance and the necessity of active American involvement, the importance of inclusiveness, significance of the pre-negotiation stage, the importance of timing and the regional and international context as well as the importance of motives and willingness.

The Jordanian Parliamentary Institution: A Study in Political Representation

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Authors: Khalid Issa Aladwan , Khaled Mufadi Aldab
Keywords: Political Representation, The Minorities, The Indigenous Peoples, Electoral Law, Electoral System
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 246 - 267

Abstract

This study aimed at identifying the scope of political representation of the Jordanian Parliament from the perspective of studying the minorities and the indigenous people. To achieve the objectives of the study, legal, analytical and statistical approaches were used. The study concluded that the representation of the minorities and the indigenous people in the Jordanian parliament depend on the quota system and it has been characterized by steady and permanent presence in the parliament since the establishment of the state. Finally, the study provided specific recommendations including: the need to review mechanisms of election for the minorities to strengthen the national identity, and other related technical and substantive matters of the elections' law. It is necessary to reconsider the quota system for the Bedouin, and the minorities according to their weight within the population.

Syrian Poetesses from Yemen Tribes During Ummayyad Era

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Authors: Mefleh Al-Fayez
Keywords: Poetesses, Yemen, Ummayyad
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 268 - 283

Abstract

Some Syrian poetesses from Yemeni tribes emerged during the Ummayyad era. They played a role in the events that took place in their epoch, and their presence was clear in some social activities. This research aims at recognizing these poetesses, gatherning their poems from different sources, describing their literary roles during that epoch, and interpreting why not much of poetry we have received. The Poetry of these neglected poetesses dealt with home sickness, self-praise, elegizing, enciting to take revenege, satirizing their husbands. These poems are few because most of them were lost for many reasons.