Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 42, Issue 2

Trading Activity and Price Movement in Egypt, The Time of The Ayyubid (69-648A.H/1173-1250A.D)

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Authors: Fawzi Khalid Tawahya
Keywords: Trade, Monetary, Egypt, Ayyubid State
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 1 - 19

Abstract

This study tries to identify the commercial activity of Egypt during the Ayyubid era and clarifies the factors influencing it, as well as, its impact on the treasury of the Ayyubid state both on terms of the commercial returns on that activity or the taxes that levied by the state from the traders. The study also tried to clarify the movement of prices of goods and factors affecting its rise and fall both in terms of supply and demand and in terms of the climatic factors or agricultural pests, or the monetary policy of the state that deeply affected the fluctuation in the prices commodity due to the manipulation of the coinage.

Abstract

This study assumes that the expression of grammarians of (lao) significance is true, (lao) indicates the privation of the content of the result depending upon condition, because of the privation of the content of the condition, But it adds a reference of the principle of equal proportion of Commons between two parties of condition in the significance of (lao), for limiting the reasoned, I mean that result depending upon condition, in the causality of condition. This study has shown that, there is a difference about the meaning of Hypothetical clause between the Grammarians theory and Rationalist Scholars theory, and in the theory of Grammarians, the correlation in the (lao) significance, and the causality of its condition, be through external reality, and not through the logical correlation rules, as the theory of Rationalist Scholars, and this difference guides to the solution of many objections about the expression of Grammarians. This study concludes to the scientific results through presentation of scientists theories about the significance of (lao), and through the analysis of these theories by Grammarians method, and Rationalist Scholars method. This study summarizes that the importance of linguistic studies of abstraction of other elements of sciences, which may mislead the results of linguistic studies, and sum up that the importance of linguistic research by the method of grammarians and linguists.

Category Linguistic between Acceptability and Preference Language Lousy Model

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Authors: Omar Abunawas
Keywords: Category Linguistic, Acceptability, Preference, Lousy Model
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 37 - 50

Abstract

This study aims at looking of the rankings at linguists for patterns of language between acceptability and preference by focusing on the poor patterns of language. The study began talking about the term of lousy language in linguistic studies concept and origination, and then offered the standards of poor Language, which was to keep away from measurement. Patterns that have addressed the poor judgment and analysis in accordance with the two-tier voice and morphological, and concluded a conclusion offered the most important findings.

The Trends Toward Music Exhibited by the Students of Musical Arts at the University of Jordan

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Authors: Nidal Nusairat , Ayman T. Hussein
Keywords: Trend, Musical Education, Career, Musical Career
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 51 - 63

Abstract

This study aims at revealing the “the educational and career trends toward music exhibited by the students of musical arts at the University of Jordan”. The analytical and descriptive methodology was used in the study by collecting and analyzing the data and information relevant to the study subject. The study population consisted of all the students enrolled in the musical arts (Bachelor and Master), a total of 56 male and female student during the first semester of the academic year of 2012/2013. In view of the results, the study recommended the administrators overseeing the educational process to stress the important role the music plays in all aspects of sentimental, physical and educational life. In addition, to the design and implementation of programs supporting the musical cultural among the Jordanian society. This is for purpose of increasing the awareness about the importance and influence of the musical careers and education on the individual and national income.

Spoken and Written Arabic of Israeli Arabs, Mutual Influences with Modern Hebrew Language

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Authors: Hassan Ahmad Hassan
Keywords: Linguistic Interference, Hebrew, Arabic, Israeli Arabs
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 64 - 77

Abstract

This study aims to study the significant Israeli Hebrew influence on the Arabic spoken and written natively by Israeli Arabs (Arab 48). It aims to shed light on the sociolinguistic situation of Arabic in Israel, by reviewing the complex situation of linguistic diglossia and Linguistic Interference in these two Semitic languages. Israeli Arabs, and Israeli Jews, who are speakers of Hebrew, have daily contact in many fields of life. These two languages are in close contact, and thereby many mutual influences are enabled between them. As a result, a great deal of mutual linguistic influence is observed in each language. This study shows that Hebrew elements are very widespread in all linguistic fields of the Arabic spoken by Israeli Arabs. Israeli Hebrew lexical items have permeated all areas of professional, educational, administrative, Economical, and social activities in everyday life discourse in all styles and registers of the spoken language and, to a lesser extent, written language.

The Sedition of Al-Ghaz and Sultan Seljuk Singer (548-552 AH /1153 – 1157 AD)

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Authors: Mohammad Kh. Momani
Keywords: Al-Gaz, Seljuk Singer, Khorasan
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 78 - 91

Abstract

This study aimed at revealing a historical event concerning Sultan Seljuk Singer's conflict with AL-Ghaz Turkish tribes in khorasan in the years (548-552 AH /1153-1157AD) and clarifying the reasons, events and the results of this conflict. The study also revealed the results of losing the Sultan's throne and the domination of AL-Ghaz which caused a defect in the balance of power of kingdom of Seljuk which, at that time, announced the start of its end. The emigration of Al-Ghaz tribes from Central Asia to Iraq was to search for food, water, security and stability. Their entry into Tkharstan and Balkh, their domination of Maro, Nishapur and some of its parts, and their spreading of corruption, rubbery, destruction which affect these regions, its people and its Sultan who died oppress although of his escaping from jail. Al-Ghaz tribes caused a historical change that could not be neglected.

Abstract

This research tries to detect Intertextual in the last divan of Mahmoud Darwish titled "I Don't Want this Poem to Come to an End" and to discuss its structures and manifestations, exceeding the limits of the stylistic and abstract phenomenon to clarify the functional, technical and aesthetic value achieved by this touch in his poems. The poet draws the origins of the poem from a variety of letters and miscellaneous academic resources. The sides of the poem manipulate the human dimension and constitute a mosaic literary text, which is comprehensive in the light of the poet's insight.

Poetry of Ibn Al-Labbanah to Al-Muutamed Ibn Abbad

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Authors: Ragda Al-Zboon
Keywords: Ibn Al-Labbanah, Al-Muutamed Ibn Abbad
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 103 - 114

Abstract

This paper aims at investigating the poetry composed by Ibn Al-Labbanah Ad-Dani in Al-Muutamed Ibn Abbad, who is considered one of the most famous kings in the Andalusi era, after his ordeal and incidence in captivity. The paper is an attempt to explore the motives of Ibn Al-Labbanah’s great loyalty to Ibn Abbad. In addition, it reveals the themes of the poetry composed in this regard, which discuss three aspects. The first aspect is the prestigious position of Ibn Al-Labbanah in Ibn Abbad’s life. Secondly, feeling sorrow at the change of his status and prestige after the demise of the kingdom of Bani Abbad. Finally keeping faith with Al-Muatamed Ben Abbad and feeling sorrow to him and to things happened to him after the demise of his kingdom and being in captivity. The research concludes to demonstrate the privacy of poetry of Ibn–Al-Labanah’s that reveals the relationship which connected him with Ibn Abbad. It also reflected this close relationship clearly in his poems and clarified his loyalty and sincerity.

Dialectical Relationship between Music and Drama

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Authors: Ali Abdullah
Keywords: Music, Drama, Opera
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 115 - 124

Abstract

Play music and drama an influential role in life since the beginning of man's first , where the associated beliefs and old formed a large portion of them , but it crystallized more clearly with the emergence of human civilizations and became its role more effectively , since the era of the ancient Greeks to the present time has become their relationship relationship coherent and sustained not limited to celebrations and events and holidays and rituals , but took their place on stage and contributed to the community building and development. The study reviews the relationship between art music and art of the drama and the emergence of all of them, are discussed in this context march creative figures additional professional exceptional bringing together between the peculiarities of thought, music and drama: (Richard Wagner), and (Bertolt Brecht), and the achievements of each , in the fields of music, drama, opera and art, especially since both artists have to deal with this art in a special way, with the most prominent recognition to their work and play Ntegathma intellectual, philosophical, and their impact on the movement of modern theater and contemporary methods of musical composition. The study draws a number of factors specific to each of the artists and participants between the two being the two schools represent important in the history of modern global culture and her career.

Social Pressures: The Available Flexibility- and The Desired Changes Experimental Study on the Mobility in the Jordanian Community 2012-2013

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Authors: Tarek Abu Hazeem
Keywords: Community Pressure, Flexibility, Changes, Community Mobility in Jordan
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 125 - 144

Abstract

This study aims at assessing the impact of the available flexibility as being the main parameter for the required changes from the perspectives of the participants or non-participants in the Jordanian Community Mobility. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, a model of two variables was designed: (1) the independent variable – the flexibility that is available in the House of Parliament, House of Senates, the Government, the Judiciary, the available resources and the media; (2) the dependent variable- the desired changes on the level of leadership, the Structure of the country, and the policies and the strategies of the country. Two hypotheses were derived from the model namely: (1) the connections and (2) the impacts. Data were collected from a random sample of (902) people that included participants and non-participants in the Jordanian community. A highly credible and consistent questionnaire was used. The analysis and the assessment of the results proved that the relation between the available flexibility and the desired changes is statistically significant. A sharp decline of the available flexibility was also found. Dissatisfaction with the course of current changes was also revealed. Finally a significant difference in terms of strength, size, trends and course on the level of the variables and the sample was detected. The study concluded with a number of recommendations

Coping Mechanisms of Poor Urban Women

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Authors: Raniah A. Jabr
Keywords: Poor Urban Women, Coping Mechanisms, Poverty Culture
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 145 - 160

Abstract

The study aimed at identifing the coping mechanisms of poor urban women in order to meet the basic needs for her family, and to reveal her social, economical and health characteristics. The study relied on survey sample consists of 136 poor women, representing 13.8% of study population, who receive cash assistance from the National Aid Fund in Zarqa. Simple statistical methods used to analyze the data. The results show diversity of the coping mechanisms used by the urban poor women, mainly through socially accepted mechanisms such as rationing in consumption, reduce spending and optimal investment of resources. In addition some other passive mechanisms such as altruism and absence of investment in human resources. The study recommends consideration to urban poor women characteristics and coping mechanisms in the design and selection of poverty reduction programs and projects, supporting particularly social viability mechanisms.

Reproaching and Threatening Kalifs in the Umayyad Poetry: “Motives and Results”

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Authors: Mufleh Al-Fayiz
Keywords: Reproach, Umayyad, Poetry, Threat
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 161 - 173

Abstract

The historical and literary sources compromised of some poems in which some poets reproached Umayyad Kalifs starting with Muaweyah Ben Abi Sufyan.Those poems included one type of reproach which is the political reproach.Sources also included some other poems in which some poets theeatened anumber of Kalifs. The research aims at highlighting these two types of Umayyad poetry and identifying the motives behind that, and the reaction of the Kalifs after hearing them. It also aims at shedding light on the political and social reality from which these poems emerged as far as sources allow.

The Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha: Study in his Political Role (898 AH/ 1520 AD – 942 AH/ 1536 AD)

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Authors: Eman abdRahman Hayajneh
Keywords: Pargali Ibrahim Pasha the grand vizier, Sultan Suleiman the lawgiver, Kanun Nama Egypt, Battle of Mohács
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 174 - 187

Abstract

Pargali Ibrahim Pasha (899AH/1492 AD – 942AH/1536AD) was the first grand vizier in the Ottoman Empire, and was appointed by Sultan Suleiman the lawgiver who granted him broad power and state positions which brought up the envy of the other ministers. However, this close relationship had come to an end when Sultan Suleiman had ordered to kill his childhood and best friend Ibrahim Pasha. The importance of this study stems from its goal to demonstrate the political role of the grand vizier Ibrahim Pasha through covering his early life, his role on organizing Egypt’s affairs by putting a status law called “Kanun Nama” after the administrative and military chaos that was left by the Mamluks disobedience movements, and his role in the Battle of Mohács (932 AH/ 1526 AD) and the Iraqs Campaign between (940 AH/ 1533 AD and 941 AH/1534 AD) with the Safavids. The study also demonstrated the importance of the grand vizier Ibrahim Pasha in the Ottoman history in expanding and extending the borders of the Ottoman Empire to reach the Baghdad in the east and the walls of Vienna in the west, and his role in connecting the Ottoman Empire with the west and changing their perspective in the development of institutions and formations of the Ottoman Empire, which was as contemporary as what their countries had. The study mentions his execution in (942 AH/ 1536 AD) and the reasons behind Sultan Suleiman’s decision.

Media Diversity in the Pronunciation Training in Large Groups of Learners. Evaluation of a German Pronunciation Training

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Authors: Renata Asali-van der Wal
Keywords: German Phonetics, Teaching of Pronunciation, Methodology, Media Variety
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 188 - 197

Abstract

The article presents and interprets a survey conducted among Jordanian learners on didactic and methodological problems in training German pronunciation and discusses respondents’ feedback on the teaching concept at the University of Jordan. The article pursues the question of if and how one can use various media in large groups of learners in pronunciation lessons. It discusses methods of training and identifies the development trends. We conclude that a focused one-semester training with the use of a variety of media is highly recommendable. Moreover, the paper establishes a thesis that songs in pronunciation lessons offer more than just singing or repetition and thus have a high potential for phonetic training.

Problems Faced by English-Speaking Students When Learning Verbs Associated with Tense and Aspect in the Arabic Language

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Authors: Basma Ahmad Sedki Dajani , Mohammad Aref Ali
Keywords: Arabic language, English language, Concordance, Tense, Aspect, Grammar
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 198 - 211

Abstract

This study seeks to provide a detailed comparative analysis of verbs denoting tense and aspect in both Arabic and English, and is designed to monitor errors in the use of verbs associated with tense and aspect by English-speaking learners of Arabic. This will be achieved through a study that characterizes the mistakes made by a group of American and British middle-level students studying at the Military Institute of Languages, who represent the study sample. Moreover, the results of such an analysis will be utilized in teaching such verbs to English-speaking students and the development of rules and regulations that limit the occurrences of students making such mistakes by guiding teachers and curriculum developers.

Jordanian Learners’ Acquisition of English Nominal-Phrase Premodification

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Authors: Khaled Abdullah Al Anbar
Keywords: Premodifiers, Second Language Acquisition, Nominal Phrase, Modification
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 212 - 224

Abstract

This paper aims at investigating Jordanian learners' acquisition of nominal phrase premodification. The predominant concerns in this piece of research were to identify the problems that Jordanian learners encounter in their acquisition of English premodification and to identify some plausible causes of such problems. One special problem lies in the fact that English imposes certain rules and conventions on the sequence of premodifiers in nominal phrases, while Arabic offers its users more flexible strings. The findings revealed that Jordanian learners of English are confronted with a difficulty during their acquisition of the sequences of premodifiers in terms of recognition, correction and production. Statistical evidence was provided to prove the validity of the presumed hypotheses. As far as the causes of errors are concerned, the study revealed that the learners' errors are caused by interlingual and intralingual transfer. Additionally, the researcher attributes some errors to the context of learning which does not place proper emphasis on the semantic and psycholinguistic aspects of the phenomenon.

The Image Construction in the Case of IbnArabi and Jala-u-ddin Al-Roumi

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Authors: Noor M. Qudah
Keywords: Poetry, Artistic Images, Defamiliarization, Simile, Symbol, Sophism
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 225 - 237

Abstract

Numerous studies tackled the works of the greatest Sufi poets in Arab and Persian countries. Two of these Sufi poets are Ibnarabi and Jala-u-ddin Al-roumi. Research on these two poets and their works focused on the thought of their poets as it played a remarkable effect on that of the SufiSchool. However, this paper focuses on the artistic aspects of the works of these two Sufi poets since their poetry played a poetic and artistic rather than a spiritual effect. The study has taken into consideration the general elements of the artistic image, and the extent it meets the artistic needs, balance among the general elements or if one element overshadows another, their interaction with the text, the spiritual occasion and poetic objectives. The importance of artistic images in the case of these two poets, in particular, and Sophist poets, in general, lies in that they shed light, to some extent, on the intended meanings which are revealed by such images. Such artistic images stand as a source of energy in poetry and enable readers to explore the experience that the two poets experienced. Furthermore, they also reveal the artistic potentials of the poets in employing them to express the intended meaning.

The Security Theory Administrative Governor

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Authors: Malik Hani Khraisat
Keywords: Security Theory, Governor
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 238 - 254

Abstract

This study aims to identify the nature of the security theory and its relation to the Administrative governor, it also aims to determine the nature of the external and internal challenges and their impact on the security of the state. As well as, the study intended to shed light on the powers of the governor and his ability to deal with these challenges and reducing its impact on the security of the state. To achieve the objectives of the study, it relied on systems methodology because security is affected by a number of internal and external factors, where external stimulus or input devices based on the study of these factors and gather information, which will be analyzed and classified, as this process is called (systems approach). It also based on the decision – making methodology, because of it’s the impact on the governor in dealing with internal challenges and his decision-making ability to face those challenges. The research also relies on the major such as books, studies, previous studies, opinion polls, websites and newspapers. The study found that concept of "security" in its general from is relative and variable concept, which expands and narrows according to its addressing methods. Additionally, it is a compound concept with several levels (individual, national, regional and international) and diverse dimensions (military, political, economic, social, humanitarian, environmental and cognitive). The study also concluded that the availability of the sense of security serves several objectives, most importantly, protecting achievements, providing public tranquility and the protection of human rights.

Abstract

This study aimed to know the elements of harmony in marital life for couples working in the public schools in northern Jordan, in the light of a set of social factors, and the study was conducted on a random sample consisting of deliberate (388) as husband and wife, data was collected by questionnaire contained 17 points. The study found that the level of marital adjustment higher in males than females and this is due to keenness of males to maintain elements of marital adjustment, and mature understanding, apparently in great satisfaction of wives on the performance of marital roles and the exercise of the dimensions of marital adjustment in martial life, while the study showed weak satisfaction of husbands towards their wives to the performance dimensions of compatibility. The main components of marital adjustment in order to maintain the issues of romance and aesthetics such as hygiene and adornment, and maintain and commitment of religious behaviors between couples, couples keenness for the security of relations between them and respect and understand each other needs , and the lack of complaints and vulnerability in some conditions and exciting challenges and prevent the interference of others in solving these issues, In addition to the intellectual and scientific compatibility between couples. The study results did not show test contrast any differences attributable to sex, family size, place of residence, while the study found differences attributable to the academic qualification, monthly income in the components of marital adjustment, and the differences in favor of highly educated master's degree or higher, and those with high-income category.

Entre le bien et le mal: dire le social à travers des proverbes. Analyse d’un feuilleton de Fahmi Abd el-Hamid, Wardachane, fille de Sultan, et Mando, fils d’éboueur (1986), inspiré des Mille et une Nuits

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Authors: Waël Ghassab RABADI , Najib RABADI
Keywords: Mille et une Nuits, réception interdisciplinaire, Égypte, Abou Facha, Abd el-Hamid, Shérihan, feuilleton du Ramadan, proverbes
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 274 - 281

Abstract

C’est dans une perspective en tous points transdisciplinaire que nous présentons le fruit d’une recherche portant sur un feuilleton des années 1980, inspiré par le chef d’œuvre des Mille et une Nuits: intitulé Wardachane, fille de Sultan et Mando, fils d’éboueur, ce programme, télédiffusé en 1986, nous permettra de souligner la vitalité du recueil ancestral dans le domaine de l’audiovisuel contemporain. Il sera abordé selon un plan triaxial décrivant d’abord la technique narrative hybride et moderniste de cette adaptation télévisée ; exposant ensuite une œuvre filmique morale et moralisante bâtie sur un tissé de nombreux proverbes ; s’interrogeant enfin sur l’influence des contes mythiques aujourd’hui.

Abstract

This research deals with music folkloristic and its relationship with other general sciences. The study of folklore, its analysis and classification, is not only of historical value, because of its social character, but also because of its impact on the professional music and its undisputed aesthetic value. In the article researchers essentially deals with discussing the way of notation of the musical artefacts, their classification and analysis, presenting the Eastern-European methodology as basic, which is to help local music researchers to be grounded also with this way of ethno musicological researching, in terms of music and theory, and samples collected. The main point is a presentation of basic standings of European music theory, definition of concepts, positioning of the terms in the relevant scientific fields, but not analysis or discussion about them. The need to establish the present article was dictated of noted indeterminate knowledge about boarders of examined sciences by many of the students in Yarmouk and Jordan University. This provoked the need for their exact theoretical location and precise definition, which may help in more clear understanding and differencing them. The researchers has dwelt on the methods whereby the recorded melodies are analyzed, at the same time giving in a graph, a possible notation of dance movements, which are part of the notation of the folk songs. The determinate folk samples will not be discussed, to keep the theoretical aim of a clear trend in the article. In this work, researchers have paid also attention to the study of the folklore instruments, which are an inseparable part of the performance of folk songs and dances.

Temporality: Contextualizing Experience in DeLillo’s Falling Man

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Authors: Nath Aldalala’a
Keywords: Post-9-11 Fiction, Terrorism, Don DeLillo, Falling Man, Islam in the United States, Islam, Trauma, Arabs in Literature
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 301 - 310

Abstract

The novel, Falling Man, by Don DeLillo examines the experience of a survivor of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and its impact on his everyday life. This article considers the particularity of experience conveyed in the novel and how it is bound up with specific temporal and spatial parameters that suggest 9/11 remains hostage to interpretative modes and to the testimony of its survivors. Keith Neudecker, the chief protagonist in Falling Man, embodies this impasse in his roles as a victim and a spectator of the historical moment of 9/11. The impact and subsequent public disavowal of the photograph of a man falling from the twin towers is considered in tandem with the sense of impasse that contradicts the illusion of movement in Keith’s life post 9/11. Falling Man constructs a narrative of stasis, in which the protagonist remains located in the moment. Consequently, a narrative of past innocence, written reflectively, cannot be adequately formulated. The emphasis on the semantics and temporality of falling in DeLillo’s title posits mankind in a state of being that resides between innocence and experience as the essential moment has not been passed. However, if we consider the “fall” in the title as religious, our expectation of this leading to a state of “experience” is frustrated; the fall is arrested and the main narrative of the novel held in stasis, leaving Keith, and by extension America itself, without the possibility of a future to move on to.