Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 42, Issue 2 Supplement 1

Perception of the University of Jordan Students and their Adaptation to Water Scarcity Problem in Jordan

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Authors: Hamzah Ali Khawaldah
Keywords: Water Scarcity, Adaptation, Students’ Perception, Jordan
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 1 - 18

Abstract

This study aims to examine the perception of the University of Jordan's students to water scarcity problem in Jordan, their awareness to its dangerous impacts and their ability to adapt with its reality as it is believed that individuals’ perception of water scarcity shapes their behaviour toward the problem and their adaptation to it. This study was applied on stratified random sample of the University of Jordan’s students that included 381 students. A special questionnaire was distributed to the study sample, including the study variables: Sex, Faculty, Residential area, and Family income as well as the questions regarding the students’ perception to water scarcity in Jordan, its reasons, the students’ personal interest of the problem and ability to adapt with it and their recommendations to limit its dangerous effects. The results showed that 94.8% of the students (the sample) are convinced of the reality of water scarcity in Jordan and they are ready to adapt to it.

Applications about Statistical Lingual Approach Sentences as an Examples

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Authors: Mohammad I. Amayreh
Keywords: sentences that come in a nominative, grammatical rules
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 19 - 44

Abstract

This study aims to balance between the sentences that come in a nominative, accusative or genitive position, as seen in old grammar books and as they are represented in ancient Arabic poetry. How much does this conform with or differ from the theory that was created by Arab grammarians and actual use of these grammatical rules. Is there a big difference these days between the original grammatical rules and the way they are used? How do you organize by importance these types of sentences? Which grammatical rules are commonly used often and which are used seldom? The Purpose of this study is to reorganize what grammarians have only described in order to analyze and break down the grammar related to this subject. The material here was limited to sentences that come in an accusative position, so the study isn’t too broad. The material was made up of Arabic poetry texts (from 150 (Before Hijra) – 150 Hijri) and comprises of around 5000 poetry verses.

Imagery Formationsin Mohammed Mekdadi’s Poetry

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Authors: Ismail Suleiman Al Mazaydah , Mohammed Suleiman Al Saudy
Keywords: Imagery, Imagery Sources, Imagery Formation, Aesthetics Of Form, Mekdadi
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 45 - 54

Abstract

This study explores imagery formations in the collection of poems entitled “The Book of Death” by Mohammed Mekdadi and discusses its spiritual, human and natural sources. In addition, it reflects upon the aesthetic formation of his poetic imageries and conducts an analysis of their language, harmony and interrelation with the past. The third section in this study demonstrates the aesthetics of form and its effects on the reader. It argues that imageries in Mekdadi’s poetry are peerless in profundity, prolificacy, peculiarity and poignancy, and feature the transformational properties of modern poetry. The study concludes that Mekdadi’s poetic imageries, diversity of their sources, form and harmony effectively helped convey meaning to the reader.

Metaphor and Inclusion in Interior Design of Mosques (Mihrab of King Hussien Bin Talal Mosque in Amman City) as a Case Study

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Authors: Shereen Sab'a Tabbalat
Keywords: King Hussien Bin Talal mosque, Mihrab, Interior Design, Metaphor, Inclusion, Geometry, Creative
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 55 - 74

Abstract

This research discusses two concepts used as a reference and a methodology in design process, Metaphor and Inclusion reduce copying elements from historical buildings to new design. Analyzing the (Mihrab of King Hussien bin Talal mosque in Amman city and the mihrab of sultan Hassan mosque in Cairo city will explain and prove the hypotheses of this research that supposing a match between the two mihrabs and there is a real case in design process of mosques using these two concepts. Finally, the researcher presents his conclusions and recommendations.

Causes of Aggressive Behaviour in Children: Children's Own Experiences and Perspectives

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Authors: Anne M. Al-Najdawi , Mahmoud Kafaween
Keywords: Childrens' Childhood, Aggressive Behaviour, Socilisation
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 75 - 96

Abstract

Given the importance of the role of social work with children, especially in dealing with their behavioural problems, this study aimed to identify the causes of aggressive behavior among middle school students in three public schools in the capital city of Jordan, aged between 12-15 years. The researchers used focus group qualitative method with (35) students suffering from behavioural and aggressive problems according to their school records. Exploring the divergent claims made within childhood and aggressive behaviour theoretical perspectives, this research develops a nuanced understanding of causes of aggressive behavior in children by drawing upon key theoretical concepts from these frameworks: children as ‘socially becoming’ and ‘social beings’. This study worked to develop a deep understanding of the causes of aggressive behavior from childrens' own experiences and perspectives and through their interaction with micro and macro social structures in their everday lives. It was apparent that many ineffective child-rearing methods influence child aggressive behavior. It is suggested that poor parental supervision and children’s weak religious morality and beliefs, due to deficient socialisation, create low self-control in children, which in turn leads them to engage in aggressive acts. It has been also suggested that aggression, is due to low self-control in children, which is caused by a widespread deviant system of revenge, in which many families socialise children to respond to violence with violence. However, families also indirectly influence children’s tendency to solve interpersonal problems with aggression, as abused children learn to imitate abusive methods as an acceptable means of achieving goals; this leads to violence acts. Also, it is claimed that child abuse weakens child-parent relations, which creates low self-control in children, leading them to act out and behave aggressively. It was also apparent that abused children had the agency to resist parental abuse by aggression caused by their anger and frustration, or by escaping from home for long hours and then acting independently, away from adult supervision, and thus, behave aggressively. The study findings also showed that aggressive behavior in children is a way to express their rejection of the class constraint of poverty in which children use of time at school is heavily restriced by teachers, compared with children who belong to the middle and upper social class; thus, creating their aggressive acts in their relationship with teachers and other children. Child aggression is also seen as a learnt behaviour, as children mimic the explicit aggressive behaviour they see in the media or among peers. A child’s choice to watch violent programmes was considered a result of the parents failing to empower their children to distinguish between fiction and reality, which led to children copying the aggressive behaviour they saw. The study concluded with a set of recommendations; the most important is to activate the role of social work in developing social policies to protect children from the causes and risks of aggressive behavior in their relationship with different social structures. The researchers also suggest future research to address the causes of aggressive behavior in children among other age groups which were not targeted by this study.

The Role of the Universities Of Jordan in Developing the Political Culture Concepts Depending on Their Students’ Point of View

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Authors: Mohammad S. Al-Zboun , Husam M. Ayoub
Keywords: Jordanian Universities, Political Culture
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 97 - 119

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to put a suggested role for the Jordanian universities in the development of political culture concepts among its students. A random sample was taken of (332) students, included (177) males and (155) females from different scientific and human university colleges for the second semester (2012-2013). A developmental survey was used in this study. To answer the questions of this study, a questionnaire was used. The questions were divided into four sections: (a) the role of university courses; (b) the role of lecturers; (c) the role of students' activities, and (d) the role of students' union. The results of the study were as the following: The total evaluation for the real role of Jordan universities in developing the concepts of political culture among their students from their point of view was moderate. There were no statistically significant differences at (α ≤ 0.05) in the role of Jordanian universities in the development of political culture concepts among its students which maybe attributed to variable of sex.There were statistically significant differences at (α ≤ 0.05) in the role of Jordanian universities in the development of political culture concepts among its students which maybe attributed to variable of educational status (second year) and whom educational status (fourth year) in favor of whom educational status (second year). There were no statistically significant differences at (α ≤ 0.05) in the role of Jordanian universities in the development of political culture concepts among its students which maybe attributed to variable of college. The study recomended various recomendations; the most important one is taking the suggested role which was put for the role of Jordanian universities in developing of political culture concepts among its students from their point of view.

Narrative and Historical Vision in “Qanadeel Malik Al-Jaleel” Novel

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Authors: Sami M. Ababneh
Keywords: Narrative, “Qanadeel Malik Al-Jaleel” Novel, Historical Novel
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 120 - 133

Abstract

This research studied the relation between narrative and history in Ibrahim Nasrallah’s novel “Qanadeel Malik Al-Jaleel”. The research focused on four aspects: Reality of genre, Narrative speech and the historical story, Reality of the historical vision, and Formation of character. This research tried to explore the artistic value and the intellectual vision illustrated by presenting historical subject related to Sheikh Dhaher Al-Omar Al-Zaydani. The research showed that the novel represents a problematic case in its relationship to history as both share the subject raised. The novel was characterized by its ability to: represent historical events, generate sensations in historical events – ones that surpass reporting to fiction, and give the text its literary form. This research brought out that the idea of the novel and the novelist’s vision are represented in enhancing the level of presence of Dhaher Al-Zaydani’s character from a past-event level to a current-moment level. Thus, the character was made an absolute symbol who surpassed with his deeds the historical circumstance of his time.

Repetition in the Poetry of Haider Mahmoud

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Authors: Ismail Suleiman Al Mazaydah
Keywords: Repetition, Haider Mahmoud, Poetry
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 134 - 143

Abstract

This paper addresses repetition in the poetry of Haider Mahmoud. The poet uses this style to inspire and instill meaning into the reader. The paper covers four patterns of repetition in the poetry of Haider Mahmoud, namely the repetition of letter, repetition of word (noun or verb), repetition of sentence (complete or incomplete), and repetition of topic. Repetition helps the poet construct the poetic sentence and influence the reader who becomes more respectful of the authority of the poetic text when reading it. In addition, repetition provides the poet with linguistically musical and artistic styles. The paper concludes that repetition is often used in Haider Mahmoud's national poetry. The repetitions of nouns, verbs, complete and incomplete sentences are more common in his poetry than the repetition of letter. Haider Mahmoud also repeated topics especially when he writes about Al Sa'alik (vagrants), Amman, and the Jordan River.

Discourse Analysis of "Taiyat Al-Shanfari"

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Authors: Lara Abdelraouf Shafagoj
Keywords: Poetic Discourse, "Taiyat Al-Shanfani"
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 144 - 157

Abstract

The current study addresses the discourse analysis tools as a methodology to read the texts and to reveal the explicit and implicit meanings in such texts in the poem “Taiyat Al-Shanfara” examining the assumption of a discourse core in which its deep roots lie in “Al Hanafiya”. In order to achieve the objective of the current study, the researcher studied and analyzed the poem from the assumption which the researcher tried to prove as its scientific validity. The researcher also addressed the poem in its rhetorical units that achieve and realize the semantic consistency with the assumed core taking into account the textual figurative language as one unit. The reading of the current study provides a suggestion which contains the reasons for its significance, while it concludes that the assumed reading is possible without providing the unequivocal evidence. This is an argument that could not be applied in the study of the literary -structured texts and discourse.

Women in the Geographical Thought

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Authors: Maysoun W. Al-Otoum , Nassem F. Barham
Keywords: Feminist Geography, Modernity, Tourism, Economic Geography, Entrepreneurship
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 158 - 168

Abstract

The feminist movement, among other social movements active in the 1970s, has contributed with new subjects and trajectories to the discipline of geography. It has introduced novel methods (both qualitative and quantitative) and unconventional approaches both to geographic research as well as to gender studies. Furthermore, these studies propose issues regarding behavioral discrepancies between women and men in the environment, vocational spheres, and the conceptualization of space. Scholars have proceeded to inscribe a novel branch of geography, namely, “feminist geography”. Modernity and globalization have opened new fields of engagement for women, which has contributed to feeding into the horizons of geographic research whose trajectory concerns itself with the ambivalent relationships between modernity and women’s work in the service sector and the criticisms thereof. This study is an introduction to feminist thought in geography in the fields of tourism and economic geography, only as examples, in order to dwell further on geographic research concerned with feminist and women issues and its controversies.

The Status of the Poet between the Worry of the Role and the Desire of Exceeding the Limits: Reading in Abu Tammam’s Experience

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Authors: Mufleh D. Hweitat , Abdullah M. Ibrahim
Keywords: Status of the Poet, Abbasid era, Abu Tammam and Authority
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 169 - 183

Abstract

This study examines the status of the poet in the Abbasid era. The study makes a presentation that outlines the most prominent changes that had occurred in this era. It also shows the negative impact of these changes on the poet’s status. The study takes Abu Tammam’s poetry as an expressive model of this phenomenon since he has the most one in embodying and expressing such a worry. There appears in his poetry a high intensity of complain from the declining role of poetry and poets. Moreover, the study discusses the controversy sparked by Abu Tammam’s poetry in his ambiguous relation with authority, attempting to explore the connotations included within his discourse in praise poems. Finally, the study sheds light on Abu Tammam’s celebration of his poetic text as well as his constant fascination of such a text. This expresses the poet’s strategy in defending his poetry, which is viewed by Abu Tammam as a strong haven and staying power in this presence.

Problematic of Building Industrial Cluster in Jordan

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Authors: Nassim Barham
Keywords: Agglomeration Economies, Industrial Cluster, Value Chain, Innovation, Social Institution
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 184 - 195

Abstract

In a free economy, enterprises tend to be concentrated in specific locations. These clusters provide economies known as “location economies” or “external economies”. Industrial clusters are formed by intensive cooperation and interaction of a number of enterprises and institutions that collectively build a “value chain". Clusters offer the potential of innovation and competitiveness, and therefore, could be considered as a structure and a mean for regional development. This study discusses the possibility of building an industrial cluster in the engineering industries located in “King Abdullah the Second Industrial Estate” in Sahab (Southeast of Amman). It is obvious that the structure of the enterprises as well as the social institutions prevailing in Jordan make the building of an industrial cluster a challenging task.

The Impact of Linguistic Diglossia on Teaching Arabic to Speakers of Other Languages: Analytical and Statistical Study

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Authors: Jamila Abed Abu Mughnam
Keywords: Linguistic Diglossia, Teaching Arabic to Speakers of other Languages, The colloquial Arabic and the classical Arabic, Social Linguistics
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 196 - 208

Abstract

This research aims to study the impact of linguistic diglossia on teaching arabic to speakers of other languages. Despite being a normal linguistic phenomenon in all human societies, it casts its shadow on teaching Arabic to non-native speakers. This research aims at studying the relationship of diglossia to the production objectives of the learners, curricula, the community of the target language, and the teacher of the second language. The study has also presented in light of Statistical and descriptive approach an extrapolation to the attitude of learners of Arabic of speakers of other languages in the Language Center at the University of Jordan towards the Jordanian colloquial, where it has detected positive attitudes towards learning the vernacular as well as the eloquent (standard) level. In the light of the findings, the study presented a proposal based on the investment of the joint intersections between the vernacular and eloquent styles of the language; to bridge the gap between the two levels. We have also presented a model of linguistic patterns where shades of diglossia appeared in the writing of composition by learners of Arabic of speakers of other languages.

Facilitating Arabic Syntax: A Chronological Approach

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Authors: Fatima Al-Omari
Keywords: Arabic, Language, Facilitating Arabic Syntax, Theory on Arabic Syntax
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 209 - 216

Abstract

This study has a chronological approach, which aims to examine the notion of facilitating Arabic syntax through the following steps: firstly, it examines the emergence of syntax: its requirements, stages, and the origins of the theory on Arabic. Then it focuses on facilitating the examination of the following aspects of Arabic syntax: its definition, causes, and an exploration of a general categorization of its old and new calls, with an extended explanation for some of them, and a shortened one for others. The study concludes with an attempt to reach a proposed reading of the issue through examining the included calls and scholars views.

Palestinian Women's Point View of the Concept of the Civil State…The City Of Nablus, Palestine as a Model

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Authors: Maryam Minawi , Majd Aldeen Khmash
Keywords: Empowerment, Quota, Feminist Movements, Social Culture
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 217 - 238

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to uncover the Palestinian women's perception of the concept of the civil state and their expectations of the laws, constitutions and enactments, which will form the future Palestinian state, and their position within these enactments. In addition, it examines the respondents' definitions of the religious and civil states and their preferences to each one. The research uses a purposive random sample of (400) Palestinian women who are participants in the labor force. In addition to the questionnaire, focus interviews have been done with (13) Palestinian feminist movements key leaders, who represent the diversified Palestinian political and social groups. The reason for choosing the City of Nablus as a model is that because it has been encompassing many of the feminist movements and civil institutions for a long time, in addition to being the economic capital of Palestine, and thus, it has had diversified social and political activities. In short, it can be a good indicator of what goes on in the Palestinian society as a whole. The results demonstrate that study samples prefer laws and enactments that give priority for education for both genders, bane early marriage, and laws that give freedom, including financial one to women, and achieve full citizenship, and equality. The research shows that the legal obstacles in terms of the absence of laws that call for equality and other pillars of the civil society are confronting women advancement. The study also reveals that women are unaware of the political changes that have taken place after the Oslo Agreement and that may be attributed to being busy with their families, works and do not follow up the political developments and changes. Besides, it uncovers that the religious rhetoric still affects the Palestinian society, mainly during the political instability times.

Communication Barriers among Students of the University of Jordan from Their Point of View

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Authors: Ibrahim Ahmad Al Aladra , Ibrahim Abu Argoup
Keywords: Communication Barriers, The University of Jordan, Students
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 239 - 260

Abstract

This study aimed at identifying the barriers of communication among the students of The University of Jordan from their own perspectives and finding out the relationship between the students’ qualitative traits and communication barriers and the ways to reduce those barriers. A questionnaire was distributed to a stratified random sample which consisted of (504) students from The University of Jordan. The study arrived at the following conclusions: The level of communication barriers among The University of Jordan students with regard to the six criteria was below the average. It showed that the sender occupied the highest rank of these criterias, and then the rest of the barriers were confined to communication situation and response consecutively and of the barriers existed in the communication circle: "sender, message, channels , receiver, response and the communication situation". It revealed that the linguistic barriers comprised the overload, and threatening message, quick and slow response, aggressive message and ambiguity in a message. The physical barriers also included disability in both sender and receiver. The personal psychological barriers include the sender’s carelessness with regard to his appearance, the difference of the education level between the sender and receiver, the receiver’s rash evaluation of the sender, the receiver’s sense of superiority over the sender, negative feedback, and the gender difference between the sender and the receiver. The social barriers encompass religious differences, nationality, the different social status to which the sender and receiver belong, the presence of university violence, the variety in students’ academic achievement, and students’ economical levels. Regulatory barriers, moreover, included the censorship of message’s content, reporting many messages simultaneously, and the state in which the students become a subject to university penalties. With regard to the physical environmental barriers, one might think in not choosing the appropriate place for delivering the message, the difficulty of utilizing the communication channel with regard to its lack of variation, high cost, weak influence on the receiver, the lack of its desirability, and low level of public hygiene. There are statistically significant differences at the level of (a≤0.05) regarding some dimensions and there are no statistically significant differences with regard to the other dimensions. The researcher attributed this to different variables such as gender, faculty and academic level. The researcher also raised many recommendations to reduce the barriers under scrutiny.

Population Components in Qninasrin District Till the 10th Century

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Authors: Mohammad Abdul-Qader Khreisat , Al-Mahdi Eid Alrawadieh
Keywords: Qninasrin District, Populations in the north of Levant Region, Tribes in Qninasrin District
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 261 - 283

Abstract

This paper tries to shed some light on one of biggest districts in Levant Region in the first four centuries of the Islamic empire, this area is the Qninasrin District which is located on the border with Roman Empire that was considered the base for the most islamic military missions against Romans. The research gives a brief overview about the district that was established during the Umayyad era, then it discusses the various aspects related to the district such as its habitants and their religious, ethnic and cultural backgrounds giving the geographical distribution of the population on the ground.

Climate Change Indicators in the North of Jordan

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Authors: Mohammad A. Zytoon , Numan A.H Shehadeh
Keywords: Climate Change, The Climate Of Jordan, The North Of Jordan.
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 284 - 303

Abstract

This study spotlights the indicators of climate change through analyzing of the direction of change in the annual temperature and rainfall averages in the north of Jordan during the period (1970 – 2009). The researcher used monthly and annual data of rainfall and temperatures averages in the climate stations mainly in (Rass Muneef, Al-Bakura, Irbid and Mafraq). The direction of climate change in region in terms of temperature and rainfall was investigated through using a number of statistical methods; such as simple linear regression, T-test, triple and quintet moving averages, annual accumulative differences as well as using geographic information system and spatial maps to compare between two periods of time. All of the statistical methods that were used in analyzing the climate change in the north of Jordan revealed that there was a noticeable increase in the annual temperature averages during the period (1970-2009), specifically; during the next phase of the study i.e. (1989 – 2009). In addition, the study demonstrated that there was an annual decrease in rainfall in Mafarq and Irbid climate stations, and slight increase in Rass Muneef and Al-Baqura climate stations, however, the increase in the annual rainfall did not have any significant statistical differences.

Quranic Intertextuality in the Poetry of Abu at-Tayyib al-Mutanabbi

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Authors: Abdullah M. Ibrahim , Mufleh D. Huwaitat , Mahmoud H. Zuhairi
Keywords: Quranic intertextuality, Al-Mutanabbi and Abbasid Poetry
Publication year: 2015
Pages: 304 - 321

Abstract

This research focuses on the Quranic intertextuality in the poetry of Abu at-Tayyib al-Mutanabbi. Therefore, the research aims at displaying the forms of Quranic intertetxuality and the technical means employed by the poet while using it. Within this context, it is fair to indicate that Al-Mutanabbi has implemented intertextuality in both its kinds "reference" and "indicative" as a way to reach his poetic destination via generating new, suggestive, and innovative connotations and images from the meanings of the Holy Qur'an. Moreover, Al-Mutanabbi has replaced the indication and clarity by the code and reference to get close to his goal. Furthermore, in order to understand what death short and expansion of meaning by the shortest and most expressive words, Al-Mutanabbi's reference was made to the previous texts, particularly the Holy Qoran. Thus, this paves the way to intensify the meaning in one hand, and access to the prospect of a broader meaning on the other hand. Additionally, the Quranic text provides the creative person with broad potential to receive it effectively, on the light of what the Holy Qur'an holds in the memory of the reader as well as its high effectiveness in one's life.