Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 43, Issue 1

The Postal System in the Battles and Conquests of War in the Mamluk Era

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Authors: Anwar Odeh Al-Khaldi
Keywords: Postal System, The Mamluk State, Baibars.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 1 - 12

Abstract

This paper deals with the role of the postal system in the battles and conquests of war in the Mamluk era. The Mamluk state consisted of scattered rings connected by an integrated postal system founded by Sultan Zahir Baibars. This system was launched in an era of rising attacks by Mongols and Crusades on the border of the Mamluk state. This situation necessitates that news should be brought from areas of the conflict to Qal’at AlJabal (the citadel) in Cairo at full speed to mobilize the army according to the news arrived. Research proved the extent of the success of this postal system in the victory of the Mamluks in several battles against the Crusaders and the Mongols.

Al-Mutanabi between Alqirtajni and Altha'albi: Critical study

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Authors: Wafa Shahwan , Fathi bu Murad
Keywords: Al-Mutanabi, Alqirtajni, Altha’albi, Critics.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 13 - 34

Abstract

The study was built on a balance between both the late critics (Alqirtajni in his book the Minhaj Al-bolgha'a wa Srag Al-odaba'a) and (Altha'albi in his book Yateemat Al-daher fee Mahasen Ahl Alaser). This survey offered by both above mentioned critics a balance about the poems of Al-mutanabi , and the way that they both have the balance , its presentation , mythdology and curriculum. Nevertheless the survey had important opinions, idioms and issues critical which highlights the Significance of both as critics and contributes in developing criticism and critics. Though Alqirtajni was well educated in Arabic and Greek which made him getting closer to critics but was not a professional one , likewise Altha'albi was not more luck than his colleague (Alqirtajni) though he was fully equipped with wide historical Arabic culture but still he can't go deeply in critics.

The Security Role of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization 1996-2013: Regional Cooperation or NATO's Balancing?

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Authors: Khair Salim Diabat
Keywords: SCO, NATO, Security Role, Regional Cooperation.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 35 - 51

Abstract

This study examines the subject of the security role of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) 1996-2013. The study presented a historical background of this organization in terms of its establishment, members, targets, structure, and security interests that member states are trying to achieve. The study tried to analyze the nature of the security role of the SCO by dividing it into four historical stages: Stage of approachment among the member states (1991-1996), stage of confidence and security building (1996-2001), stage of institutionalization of regional security (2001-2004), and stage of practicing a global security role (2004-2013). It is based on the premise, that there is a positive correlation between the growing security role of the SCO and the members tendency for balancing possible threats that coming from the NATO. In this study, the researcher have opted for "an historical analytical Approach" as one of the methodological tools that best fit to the topic.The study concluded that the security role of the SCO has developed significantly through exercising a kind of "Soft Balancing" towards the policies of the United States and NATO. This type of balancing may develop into "Hard Balancing", if the member states - particularly China and Russia – could overcome the internal and external challenges they are facing.

The Rhetoric of Counterpoint and Alliteration in the Minor "Taa'iyah" Poem of Ibn Al-Farid

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Authors: Khalid Al-Jabr
Keywords: Counterpoint, Alliteration, Ibn Farid
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 52 - 71

Abstract

Ibn Al-Farid's minor "Taa'iyah" poem stands as a testament to the poetry serving for non poetic purposes; where the poem is an embodiment of the mystic journey, and the volatility in the mystical standings and conditions. It is a psychological and emotional journey, based on the description of the situation of poor self statuses: Unity, and Distinction. Language has worked marvelously in it. The alliteration and counterpoint were the most corresponding arts, and deeply connected to the unity and distinction statuses, and expressed the suffered pain after the first unity, and nostalgic for the overall unity. The poem seems to have been built with an intentional growing structure, where the language shifts in line with the rise in self emotional ascension.

The Impact of Probability Theory in Arabic Grammar

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Authors: Haroun Al-Rabab’a
Keywords: Arabic grammar, Arabic Lexicon
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 72 - 86

Abstract

This research is based on the notion of determining all the possible forms of each content word in the Arabic lexicon in order to determine the corresponding parsing characters for that form; whether this parsing character is a long vowel or a short vowel. According to this study, a proper form of parsing character that is consistent with the grammatical context will be applied syntactically. For example, the dual of students, in Arabic (Taliban), has two forms: /Ta:lɛba:n/ and /Ta:lɛbain/. The difference in the two forms is in character preceded the final sound of the utterance, which is respectively /a:/ in /Ta:lɛba:n/ and /ai/ in /Talɛbain/. Since the word (Taliban) has three distinct ways of parsing: alrafi’, alnaseb, and aljar, one of the two forms of the mentioned dual noun of student assigns two parsing characters that are alnaseb and aljar, but the second form (Taliban) has only one character of parsing. In this paper, the researcher proposes a practical application of this methodological study on all the ways of parsing involving the major and minor parsing marks. The paper is organized in a systematic order as follows. The introduction explains the preliminaries, the used terms, and the prior works. The first three sections discuss the mathematical methodology used by the Muslim scientists in general, linguists with some details, and grammarians with more details. The fourth section is dedicated to discuss the proposed method in details, which is the main subject of this paper. The purpose of this research is to move the student from the memorizing approach to the reasoning and understanding approach. The results of the study indicates that this method applies to all parsing statuses of Arabic language .It also utilizes the pedagogical process of syntax for the teachers and the students at the same time.

Relationship of Job Satisfaction with Job Performance among Members of the Faculty Staff at the University of Tabuk

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Authors: Saud bin Mohammad Al-Shammari
Keywords: : Job performance, Job satisfaction, Faculty member, Demographic variables.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 87 - 102

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the levels of job performance and satisfaction on one hand and finding the relationship and differences between them among available sample of (120) male faculty members at the University of Tabuk for the academic year 1434/1435 AH – 2013/2014 AD, according to some demographic variables on the other. Two scales were applied to collect study data, the first instrument measures job performance level, which developed by AlSarayreh (2007). The second instrument measures job satisfaction level, it was developed by Al Zubi (2010). After data collecting and analysis, results show significant differences at the levels of job performance and job satisfaction according to the variables of faculty, professional rank, years of experience, nationality, and toward scientific faculties, the least academic rank, least years of experience, non-Saudi nationals, on one hand, results also show a positive correlation between job performance levels, and job satisfaction on the other. Based on study results, researcher recommends the need to provide the right and appropriate university atmosphere to develop job performance and satisfaction levels among faculty members.

Positivists Epistemological Crisis Discourse of Zaki Najib Mahmoud

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Authors: Mohammad Al-Shayyab
Keywords: : Zaki Najib Mahmoud, Epistemological.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 103 - 116

Abstract

Zaki Najib Mahmoud considered the most prominent representatives of positivism in the Arab word, which offers a vision based on the epistemological mind logical positivism in Europe. The question Alveasay search to answer: is this vision has been able to express the epistemological theory in modernity actually Arabic or whether it remained a modernist critical theory in the west it self? To answer this question, I followed the curriculum cash analytical away from cash exclusionary in an attempt to answer the hypothesis that Zaki Najib Mahmoud has reached to determine his epistemological on a base of originality in the analysis, in terms of independence and distance from follower. But obviously practice contemporary Arab, consequential discourse highlights that this practice is full of contradictions and consequential supply and as an expression of defensive retreat when doesn’t place for creative philosophical thought.

The Semi-Essentials In Arabic

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Authors: Hussein BouAbbas
Keywords: grammatical elements, Semi-Essentials
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 117 - 131

Abstract

The grammatical elements were divided into two categories: the Essential and the Complement. The research reviewed these two groups with new finding emerged. The new results mentioned in previews studies, however, these researches do not named yet. For that, this research has categorized these new finding and entitled as (Semi-Essential). The new term explained as when the complement take all or parts of the essential's function, in terms of the semantic and the form, or the semantic only. Moreover, the researches states that the semi-essential alternating the essential in seven main events, besides, the semi-essential doesn’t alternate the essential in six occasions. The study relied on the linguistics statements throughout the different Arabic grammar stages

Mental And Social Flexibility And Its Relation To Interpersonal Openness Among Tabuk University Students

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Authors: Sou’d Al-Shimmari , Mohammad Mahmoud bani Younis , Ahmad Al-Za’arir
Keywords: Mental and Social Flexibility Trait, Interpersonal Openness Trait, Tabuk University students, Demographic variables.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 132 - 146

Abstract

This study aimed to detect all levels of mental and social flexibility, and interpersonal openness traits on one hand, and finding the relations and differences between them according to some demographic variables among available sample of (140) of enrolled bachelor students at Tabuk University for the academic year 1434/1435AH – 2013/2014 AD at the scientific, social and humanities colleges on the other.To detect study variables; two instruments have been applied; the first instrument measures mental and social flexibility trait, and the second instrument measures interpersonal openness trait. After data collecting and analysis, statistical results indicated significant differences at the significance level of (α ≤ 0.05) of mental flexibility level, and in favor to humanities and social colleges students, also indicated significant differences at the significance level of (α ≤ 0.05) of interpersonal openness level, and in favor tonon -Saudi students, and positive statistical correlation at the significance level of (α ≤ 0.05)between social flexibility and interpersonal openness traits, and there is predictive ability for mental and social flexibility in interpersonal openness trait. Based on study results, researchers recommended the need for early detection of mental and social flexibility, and interpersonal openness traits, and the preparation of the appropriate educational and extension programs, which will contribute to developing its positive aspects, and reduce the negative ones.

The Image of Women in Advertising at Jordanian Television

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Authors: Ibrahim fuad Al khasawneh
Keywords: Image of Women, Television, Advertising.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 147 - 167

Abstract

The Research concentrates on women advertising in Jordan's Official and Private Television Stations, which presented by governmental and other private TV. stations including JOSAT, NORMINA & RO'YA, in order to know the reasons behind the advertisers paying for their products to exploit women's body in ways that offend her image. The Researcher used questionnaire tool for the subject field, they distributed samples to 600 women who were selected by using the randomization method, drawing a sample of 200 individual form each region, (Irbid in the North), (Amman in the Middle), and (Aqaba in the South). The Most prominent results of the survey were the turnout of women to watch advertising, that it was revealed through Jordanian Television Stations permanently where the percentage (68 %) followed by (25 %) confirms that the video advertising message would be an influential communication method which empowers the attention of TV audience.

Security Expedition on Ma’an City in 2002

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Authors: Mohammad Abd Al Kareem Mahafzah , Mohammed Khalafh Alraggad
Keywords: Security Expendition, Ma’an City.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 168 - 182

Abstract

This study aims to highlight on the issue of the security expedition on Ma’an city in 2002 during the government’s period of the Engineer Ali Abu Arragheb, and that through analyzing the events that happened in the city. The Jordanian government took a decision to send security forces to finalize these events which political decision maker in Jordan considered it as security events that touched the peace and safety of the citizen, and it made aggression on the country’s establishments and harming it, as well as he considered it as a challenging and breaking laws and systems, this study presented reasons and justifications of the security expedition from different point of views, and it had in its analysis the way of making and making the decision related to the issue, explaining the alternates which were available in front of the decision owner, and how the alternate was chosen which being suitable with decision maker’s thoughts and realizations from other alternates were available, with consideration that the alternate was the successful solution to solve the issue, after inability of government to arrange with opinion leaders and persons of distinction in Ma’an to finalize the issue without harming in the city and the citizens of Ma’an, as well as the study showed officials’ opinion, political parties, human rights’ organizations, and opinions leaders and persons of distinction of Ma’an city toward the event.

Irony in the Grand Dream by Al Waharani (An Objective Literary Study)

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Authors: Salameh Al-Ghareeb
Keywords: : Irony, Grand Dream, Wahrani.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 183 - 192

Abstract

This paper aims at identifying the ironical situations as illustrated in Al Waharni's The Grand Dream. This paper reveals the sarcasm of the author and his cynical attitude toward a number of people in Ayyubid age in different sciences. He mocks a number of Egypt's and Syria's scholars, jurisprudents, writers, physicians, and phoneticians among others. This paper also aims at meditating the approach AL-Waharani adopted in writing The Grand Dream; an approach that is differed from the approach of his peers, who adopted Al-Fadili figurative style. Al Waharani, therefore, used a familiar style that is based on narrative and dramatic representation of scenes.

Techniques of Cohesion in the Literary Discourse: A stylistic study of a poem by Laqeet Bin Ya’mor Al-Iyadi

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Authors: Amani Soleiman Daoud
Keywords: Literary Discourse, Stylistic Study, Laqeet Bin Ya’mor
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 193 - 208

Abstract

The present research handles a new perspective in stylistic study, by examining the interaction of literary analysis and the devices of textual cohesion within a frame of discourse analysis. For that purpose, the research makes use of certain key elements as they distinguish the textual cohesion, and represent the basis for discourse analysis – it explores how these elements and devices move around in the literary text, and the part they play in endowing the text with qualities like 'literariness' or 'poeticality', which may be the means to revealing the stylistics of the literary/poetic discourse. The research particularly focuses on three key terms: repletion, synonymy, and antonymy, as they feature in a poem by Laqeet bin Ya'mur al-Iyadi, by shedding light on the textual cohesion it represents, which in turn emanates from denotational and associational means of cohesion; and it points out the bonds among certain linguistic features or elements and the stylistic perspective, when they work as common devices.

The Prayers of Answering of Religious Calling of the Jahiliya (Pre Islamic Arabs)

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Authors: Laila T Al-Omari
Keywords: prayers; ‘pilgrimage; responding to Allah the Al-Mighty’; supplication
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 209 - 239

Abstract

The study sheds light on the features of religious life in the Jahiliya age through studying the Jahili “answering of callings” in a manner restricted to the themes constituting a general phenomenon therein, and which researches the general rituals, and the palpable religious works, and the spiritual supplications undertaken by the Jahili Arabs. The purpose was to achieve tangible material rewards. These topics have been under the aegis of three major titles that included the prayers of the Jahili Arabs towards the gods, the rituals of their pilgrimage, their religious festivals. This has been based on the researcher’s gaging common features. In effect, the researcher has found that the religious characteristic of the “answering of callings” in addition to the materialist nature of the Arabs are the predominant feature of these prayers. The study addresses, likewise, secondary themes gathered by the scholar in a single topic. Each of these topics- in terms of the size of the material and contents- does not constitute a separate subject. These are themes- interpretatively- that are related to their religious life, particularly in terms of their materialist view of their gods, and also in terms of their relationship to their gods based on a feeling of weakness and fealty. However, this feeling is absent in the relationship of one of the high-class social classes- the kings’ class, for example. In effect, the “answering of callings” has indicated a relationship involving an air of superiority. The connections between the answering of calling for the Arabs before Islam, and the nature of their religious life - had an effect on the various answerings of calling in so far as performance and content. Such variety is based, in their totality, on pleasing their gods and gaining affinity to them through various means, some of which have been addressed in the course of this study. Perhaps the researcher intended through the study to add what is new insofar as what has been known about religious life in the Jahili age with respect to verse and chronicles and, moreover, to add detail to the discussion of some of their aspects given that the Jahili “answering of callings” constitutes a broader discussion and a fuller reference.

Youth and Reproductive Health Issues in the Syrian Arab Republic

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Authors: Khitam Tamim
Keywords: : Youth, Reproductive Health
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 240 - 258

Abstract

The study examined to shed light on some of the social and economic problems, educational, family and health, which are exposed young people, in order to take these problems and how its size The study aimed to highlight the role of social and economic factors and health on the process of economic and social development in the Syrian Arab Republic. And stand on the most important obstacles to the development of optimal reproductive health and take it. And provide young people with concepts that illuminate the way in this area to ensure good mental health and physical health intact in order to contribute to the payment of the desired development process. The study used methods of statistical analysis, whether descriptive or analytical, and the sample consisted of 1200 young men and women, between the ages of (15-39) years, and used the resolution to achieve the objectives of the study, where the results were analyzed by the statistical program SPSS, 11.5 reported results of the study to1.25% young people's knowledge of family planning was weak. 1. 1.25% young people's knowledge of family planning was weak . 2. 20% respondents did not know the proper age for pregnancy. 3. 36% of respondents in favor of the natural inhibitor which means unsafe. 4. 52% only support the use of family planning methods. 5. 15% to Aaaadon spacing. 6. 37% did not know the benefits of birth spacing 7. 7.82% knew the risks of abortion. The study recommended: efforts to reduce the rate of population growth in Syria. The achievement of justice and balance in the distribution of public services, including reproductive health services between urban and rural areas. Reconsider the relationship between the family members of the Syrian inspire the spirit of democracy in the decision-making in matters relating to reproductive health of the most important foundations of the success of reproductive health programs, non-discrimination between male and female, and the emphasis in the application of medical examinations before marriage. Emphasis on the negative aspects of inbreeding, work to raise the educational level of women and address the causes of early marriage. Direction of the media and leadership training and media editors and make them aware of the importance of addressing the issues of adolescence and reproductive health

Spatial Characteristics of The Distribution of Settlements In The Governorate Of Jerash By Using Geographic Information System

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Authors: Tha’er Ayasrah
Keywords: Geographic Information System (GIS), Proximal Solution, Thiessen polygons or Voronoi Diagram, Spatial Efficiency, Kernel Density Analysis, Nearest Neighbor Analysis, Spatial Autocorrelation Coefficient (Moran's Index).
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 259 - 279

Abstract

This study focuses on the characteristics of the spatial distribution of settlements in the governorate of Jerash, by using spatial analysis tools included in Geographic Information System programs, The results of the study showed center point for the distribution of settlements in the governorate. So, it identified the mean center and weighted mean center (According to the Population), also was identified the central feature, and weighted central feature, where it appeared near between each other clearly. In addition, it calculates weighted standard distance to determine the spread of settlements and the direction of the distribution of settlements to show how the dispersion of settlements around its weighted mean center. As it turns out from the analysis of the results of the study that the distribution of settlements are closer to the random-separate spatial pattern by applying nearest neighbor analysis. And furthermore indicated value of coefficient Moran's to random spatial autocorrelation between localities of the governorate of Jerash, taking into account the number of people in each settlement. Also the study results showed the locations of population concentration as point, and on the form of rings reflect the population density of settlements in each zone. And finally, the results of the study showed a drawing area (regions) Centers of settlements using Theissen polygons and determine the spatial efficiency on the light. Finally, the study provided some of the recommendations and suggestions which will hopefully be used in the development of settlements in Jerash governorate.

Human Rights at Arab Summits Closing Statements after September 11, 2001

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Authors: Khalid Al-Adwan
Keywords: Human Rights, Arab League Summits, Closing Statements, September 11 Attacks, International Transformations.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 280 - 299

Abstract

This study aims to show the degree of interest shown by Arab leaders in promoting the issue of Arab human rights, as evidenced by their closing statements at Arab League summits. This paper also intends to illustrate the impact of international events, mainly those of September 11 attacks, on the issue of Arab human rights as reflected in the closing statements of Arab League summit conferences. The Results of the study show that Arab political address make no reference to human rights as defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. September11 attacks were found to be a pivotal point in the transformation of Arab political address of human rights in that the frequency of mentioning of the human rights issues increased as a result of international transformations and American pressure on the Arab states.

The Battle of Framing on you Tube: Exploring How Citizen Journalists Covered The Dispersal of Muslim Brotherhood Sit-ins in Egypt.

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Authors: Seham Mohamed Abdel Khalek
Keywords: Sit-in Dispersal, Muslim Brotherhood, Protest Paradigm, Valence framing, Substance Framing, Citizen-generated Content
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 300 - 313

Abstract

This study presents a quantitative analysis of citizen-generated content uploaded on You Tube to discover the presence, valence, and substance of dominant news frames employed in the coverage of Muslim Brotherhood sit-ins dispersal in Cairo. Results showed that a highly polarized political environment caused citizen journalists to replicate the ‘protest paradigm’ found in mainstream media emphasizing the negative aspects of the dispersal. Even though substantive frames were used most of the time, the amount of ambiguous frames cannot be ignored.

Visual Autoethnography: Reconstructing the "Other" in Edward Said's After the Last Sky

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Authors: Rabab Taha Al-Kassasabeh
Keywords: Visual autoethnography, Edward Said, Palestine, representation and reconstruction of the 'other'.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 314 - 328

Abstract

This paper aims to investigate Edward Said's “After the Last Sky” as a specific instance of visual autoethnography. Said returns to the critical potential of autoethnography in order to examine ethnographic photographs about Palestinian people – images used to document patterns of Palestinian culture, usually within discourses of the ‘other'. Said engages with autoethnography as a critical identity discourse which tries to comprehend the complexity of fragmented identities informed by dislocation. Autoethnography is the ideal method of choice, because it allows Said to highlight the Palestinian culture that is often voiceless within the dominant media discourse. It is compelling in part because it reveals in vivid details those whose presence might not be noticed if they spoke abstractly. This paper will deal with the way in which this autoethnography, in focusing on local voices with specific histories rather than on universal principles, has created a performative discourse played before others.

Religious Fanaticism and Intolerance in Sixteenth Century Europe: A Contextual Analysis of the Protestant-Catholic Wars in Christopher Marlowe’s The Massacre at Paris

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Authors: Nouh Ibrahim Alguzo
Keywords: : cynicism, fanaticism, Protestantism, Catholicism, heretic, ‘atheist’, unorthodox, nonconformist
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 329 - 338

Abstract

This study presents a contextual analysis of Christopher Marlowe’s play The Massacre at Paris with an eye to the historical Protestant-Catholic religious wars in sixteenth century Europe, especially those in France and England. The play exposes the hypocrisy of both Protestants and Catholics, both of whom lay claim to righteousness and to be followers of the true teachings of religion while in fact they are both obsessed with the idea of asserting power over the other. Marlowe seems to be cynical of the idea that religion is a means to reform societies by presenting it as a tool of destruction in the hands of political leaders to maintain their powerful positions by exterminating their rivals. As a consequence of the reciprocal violence which was practiced by Catholic states such as France and Spain as well as Protestant states like England over minor religious groups, Marlowe seems to be suggesting throughout his play that a more secular humanist society that can accept all peoples’ differences and that works for the benefit of all is more preferable than a religious institution who commits itself to violence in order to assert its power at all costs.