Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 43, Issue 1 Supplement 2

Difficulties Prevent Jordanian Women Participation in Political Life in Light of some Social Variables . A Field Study on Pioneer Women Sample in North Region

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Authors: Alaa AlRawashdeh , Asma AlArab
Keywords: political participation, Jordanian women, political life, social variables, Difficulties, pioneer women
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 1 - 21

Abstract

This study aimed at identifying the most important difficulties that prevent Jordanian women participation in political life in light of some social variables ,To achieve the study goals, a questionnaire was applied on a purposive sample consisted of 80 women . The following conclusions were drawn from this study: the social , the cultural, political ,media , legal and economical difficulties are the most important factors that prevent Jordanian women participation in political life. There is no significant differences between social variables and participation difficulties except age variable. Finally, and in light of the results the study came up with some recommendations such as: working on the awareness of society to change its believes regarding women participation on political life and to work on improving the economical situation of women (economical empowerment).

The City of Aqaba in terms of the Two Perspectives: Areal Expansion and Impeding Zones Crisis Study

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Authors: Mothaffar A Al-Rewashed
Keywords: Impeding Zones, Areal Expansion, Morphological Stages.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 22 - 37

Abstract

.Aqaba has witnessed an overgrowing expansion in its scope that fits its functional requirements .This expansion has been hampered by impediments represented in impeding zones that have clearly affected the growth of the city and its shape. This has resulted in a rise in the land prices and a difficulty in providing services and infrastructure in addition to transportation difficulties. The study aims at deciding the effect of impeding zones on the growth and shape of the city, therefore, it has dealt with the population growth and the areal expansion through city growth stages and the impeding zones. The study concludes that there are two major forms of impeding zones: The natural one having the influence of (50.3%) and resulting from the geographic site of the city and the humane one having the influence of (19.3%) and resulting from the absence of long term planning. The study suggests some solutions that limit the influence of the crisis.

The Effectiveness of International Institutional Multiplicity in the Field of the Environmental Protection

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Authors: Murad BinSaeed
Keywords: Global Environmental Governance, Institutional Multiplicity, United Nations Environmental System, Reform, World Environment Organization.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 38 - 57

Abstract

The aim of this research is to provide a perception of the institutional multiplicity of global environmental regulation and the various environmental institutions. In order to do this, I want to demonstrate the institutional structure of the classical, statist and official international environmental governance, which regroups many institutions, that represent states at international level, and the new transnational institutions that emerge from the global governance perspective. After showing the major international environmental institutions which correspond to the United Nations environmental institutions and other international environmental bureaucracies, I analyze the new institutional structure which include the new non state actors like nongovernmental organizations and multinational corporations. In a second stage, we develop a perception of the institutional architecture of global environmental regulation in the perspective of global governance. In order to do this, I want to demonstrate the transformations of the institutional structure of international environmental governance and different proposals to reform the institutional architecture of global environment, and analyze the conditions for equal and equitable environment institutional structures. After showing the major international environmental institutions and the actual conditions for the environmental regulation in the perspective of global governance, I analyze the chances of these structures in the realization of the environmental agenda and the needs for a reformist philosophy which can promote the complex institutional interaction of the contemporary circumstances

Contemporary Hebrew Literature has dealt with all events that the Jews have experienced during their life since the end of the nineteenth century. This study aimed to review the implications of one of these events in Modern Hebrew literature, namely "Nazi

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Authors: Mahmoud Sanad Amarat
Keywords: Contemporary Hebrew Literature - (Nazi events) - the second generation - implications.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 58 - 76

Abstract

Contemporary Hebrew Literature has dealt with all events that the Jews have experienced during their life since the end of the nineteenth century. This study aimed to review the implications of one of these events in Modern Hebrew literature, namely (Nazi events), or what so-called in the Zionist thought "Shoah". This study also tried to show to what extent did the Israeli writers were influenced by these events and methods of their reflections in their literary works, whether those who belong to the generation of survivors of these events, or to the second generation, or even other writers whose Curriculum Vita are not linked to these events. The study provided a review of the most important literary works that have dealt with these events, and their impact on the survivors and on the Israeli community since the end of the second world war and the establishment of Israel, during the sixties and seventies of the 20th century, and then the involvement of the second generation of those events to the literary scene, till the beginning of the 21 century.

Overurbanizdrion: a Study on the Global Level

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Authors: Thar Mutlaq Ayasrah
Keywords: Overurbanizdrion or relative urbanization, Residuals, Modernization theory, Urban- bias theory, Dependency economic theory.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 77 - 88

Abstract

Group of the world countries, and the group of developed countries, and the group of developing countries, for the years 1990 and 2013, it has been measured over-urbanization of these groups calculates the (Residuals) through four separate regressions: first, the regress of the gross national product per capita on the level of urbanization, which is the most common method, and secondly: the regress of proportion of the workforce in the industrial activities to the total employed on the level of urbanization, and thirdly: the regress of workforce in service activities percentage to total employees on the level of urbanization, and the Fourth : due to the high correlation between the gross national product per capita and the manufacturing and services sectors, it has been calculated residuals of these variables Simultaneously on the urbanization level, the residuals positive values indicate that the country over relatively urbanization, and vice versa for the residuals negative. Also, the study attempted to disclose of the relationship between these variables through the use of simple correlation coefficient. The study concluded the following results: First: Residuals positive values of the countries indicate that they too are relatively urbanization, and vice versa for negative residuals. Secondly, the measurement showed increase the number of developing countries that suffer from over-urbanization in 2013 compared to 1990 for the residuals analysis of all the regressions applied, and compared with the developed countries, the measurement have showed low number for leftover decline service employment rate and the decline of all the variables together, and the countries of the world , the measurement have showed also low number for leftover decline of industrial employment rate and the decline of all the variables combined. Thirdly, there is a significant correlation (positive) between urbanization and all of the economic growth and industrialization, and service employment ratio for developing countries, and this refers to the pursuit of developing countries towards urbanization, by contrast, the correlation between urbanization and all of the economic growth and industrialization in developed countries did not appear, the urbanization was characterized being a gradual and uneven with economic development and rising per capita incomes as it is subject to the trends and effects and rates of growth in tandem with the required needs of the labor. Finally, the study recommends doing a number of future studies to test the hypotheses put forward by the three theses theories of urbanization and its impact on over-urbanization as the dependent variable, which was measured in this study, particularly in developing countries.

Women Description in Bashar's Bin Bard Poetry: Analogical study

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Authors: Ali AlTawalbeh , Mohammad BaniYaseen
Keywords: Woman's Description, Woman Image is about Sensaouosness Psychological Complex, The Beloved.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 89 - 101

Abstract

The present study aimed at introducing clear vision about the picture of woman in bashar –bin- bard poetry based on the Poetic realism and focusing on the modern criticism on this issue . The researcher deals with the poetic texts logically, directly and analytically to reach special critical opinion in order to explore and clarify this issue . The researcher divided the present study into two parts the first one concerns with the modern critied vision in Bashars poetry. and the second part is about madrigal image of woman .The researcher revealed that poetry of Bashar the physical description of the woman.

The Hebrew Short Story Writer Savyon Liebrecht: "Apples from the Desert" as a Model

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Authors: Mahmoud Sanad Amarat
Keywords: Contemporary Hebrew Literature, "Savyon Liebrecht", Apples from the Desert.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 102 - 114

Abstract

This study reviews the literary works of Savyon Liebrecht, who is considered one of the best known writers of contemporary Hebrew Literature. In addition to her Short Stories writing, she wrote Novels, Plays and several television Scripts. Liebrecht's Literary Works frequently deals with relevant social issues in Israel in her works, Liebrecht reflects the problems that Israeli community suffering from, and she gets into the Israeli spirit. She deals with the following Themes: Arab-Israeli conflict, the suffering of the Sephardic Jews in the Israeli community, the Tension between religious and seculars in the Israeli community, The gaps between the different generations in Israel, she presents also a different experiences of women as a mothers, wifes and grand mothers, and the most recurrence theme in her literary works is the (Holocaust) and its effects on the survivors and the second generation. After reviewing Liebrecht's literary works, the study moves to a translation of one of Liebrecht's famous short stories entitled "Apples from the Desert".

Abstract

The goal of this study is to determine the fate of the contemporary Western civilization in light of the challenges which is encountering, and the factors contributing to its fall as predicted by German philosopher Oswald Spalinger. The study concluded that Western civilization is undergoing the phase of the death agony after achieving remarkable scientific and cultural feats, according to the pessimistic theory of Spalinger on the fate of this civilization. The study also concluded that according to the Spalinger theory, civilizations usually undergo the same life cycle as living organisms do: birth, growth, youth, old age and death. For example, ancient civilizations will undergo the same phases and will be replaced with a new civilization. The study also agreed with Spalinger's forecast of the fall of Western civilization after reaching the climax of innovation and technological advancement. He points out that Western civilization has already begun to encounter numerous problems, such as terrorism, the economic crisis, drugs, violence, the breakdown of the family, pollution, and immorality. These are signs that Western civilization is undergoing the death agony. The study has further noted that English philosopher Arnold Toynbee differed with Spalinger's pessimistic outlook to the fate of Western civilization. Toynbee believes that the civilization which reaches the phase of fall can rise once again and flourish after coping with the challenges posed to it. Civilization once again passes through the same life cycle of birth and old age. Toynbee argues that an innovative minority appears and can rescue Western civilization and stop the process of its demise, provided that two important factors are provided, i.e. Faith and science, and this is the crux of the struggle between East and West.

The Role of Jordanian Newspapers in Anti-Smoking Advocacy An Analytical Study of the Media Frame Coverage of Alrai, Addustour, and Alarab Alyawm

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Authors: Abdulkareem A AlDubaisi
Keywords: Jordanian newspapers, Media framework analysis theory, Anti-Smoking Advocacy, Content Analysis.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 124 - 141

Abstract

This is an analytical study of anti-smoking media frames in three Jordanian newspapers: Alrai, Addustour, and Alarab Alyawm. The study shows that anti-smoking advocacy was presented in these newspapers in five major frames: the legal frame on smoking prevention (30.4%), the anti-smoking frame (29.6%), the frame of smoking being responsible for certain diseases (28.1%), the frame of fear of the harmful effects of smoking (11.7%), and finally the economic frame (0.2%). The first four frames presented facts that support anti-smoking advocacy, while the economic frame suggested that this advocacy would have negative economic effects on tourism and trade in Jordan. In using these frames, Alrai was the top newspaper (60.2%), followed by Addustor (31.3%) and Alarab Alyawn (8.5%).

Traditional and Recent Methods Used in the Cleaning of Ancient Manuscripts Spots: A Comparative Study

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Authors: Abdellatif Hassan Afandy , Ayman Salah Taha
Keywords: Manuscripts, Laser, Fungal spots, Examination, Cleaning manuscripts.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 142 - 154

Abstract

Manuscripts are exposed to many destructive environmental factors such as air pollution, spores of fungi and insects. These factors interact with components of manuscript, causing various aspects of damage such as chemical and biological color stains, especially fungal stains which present on the pages of manuscript. The use of organic solvents to remove fungal stains causes damage of components of manuscripts beside their toxicity, so we study removing fungal spots by laser beam to keep the cellulosic fiber strong, reduce the oxidation of paper and eliminate the fungus activity after treatment. Yag laser is the best types of lasers used in conservation due to the low cost, high efficiency, and the possibility of linking this technology to computer and complete the necessary knowledge of the data. To evaluate the use of laser in the removal fungal stains. I follow the experimental studies on paper samples made of various materials and growing some fungi that is harmful to manuscripts. A comparative study was carried out between chemical methods used in cleaning fungal stains, and cleaning by laser, in addition we studied their effects on the physical and chemical properties of paper. Various methods of examination were used such as a Scanning Electron Microscope and Stereo Microscope. Results were discussed with recommendation to use the laser in the cleaning of fungal stains from manuscripts.

Abstract

This study aims to employ standards textuality, which mentioned by Robert De Bojerand , as acceptability which is not necessarly be present in the text, but two basic criteria in the text form the constituent elements , namely: Cohesion and Coherence. The study conducts to explain the concept of acceptability among contemporary Westerners and Arabs and following the methodology that based on standard of acceptability in two texts in the book of al-Jahid entitled: “al-Bayan wa al-Tabiyiin”. This methodology consists of the following elements: the position of the receiver , the context, the expand of semantic. The conclusions of the study are as follow: focusing on the receiption theory of the reader as a second part in the creative process where several types of readers appeared accordingly; Arab ancient’s view of points towards the veteran receiver; where some of them took care of normal recipients and some are interesteing in super reader ; as founded in the work of arab veteran Ibn Qutaibah, the reader in the al-Jahiz book. Focus on the speaker and the situation around him; because this situation impacts in the response of the receiver and his/her interaction with the speech. The acceptability plays an important role in the acceptability of the text.

"The Methodolgy of Dr. Ahmad Mukhtar Omar in Correcting the Language of Journalists and Educated Class "

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Authors: Salem khalil ALAqtash
Keywords: linguistic correction, Ahmed Mukhtar Omar, linguistic correction methods
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 176 - 188

Abstract

Whoever goes into the fields of linguistic correction in the modern era that accompanied the spread of linguistic tune and the overwhelming of linguistic mistake in both the spoken and written language will recognize that this movement has linked between two methods which are significantly different and will face the impact of the bi-procedural method which the modern era linguistics has undergone to discuss the issues of the right and wrong in the different fields of language. He would also recognize many procedural gaps in the work of those who tooh the linguistic correction on their shoulders, who were either too restricted, and wouldn’t disengage from the time and place cord of the protesting era, or being abundant putting the rough and ready into the language calling for the linguistic widening following the saying that the most syntactical do not incriminate anyone. And within this bi-procedural work a new third method has appeared which balanced between the other two. This method is distinguished by escorting the linguistic development within the saving of the precedent manner of the linguistic heritage. This compromising, conformable method has been represented by Dr. Ahmad Mukhtar Omar who was concerned with the correct linguistic issue since he was in his schooling age. He has faced this issue in an early age which revealed concern with the issues of "right and wrong" and a dictionary of the correct linguistics has been a guide for the general educator for the linguistic use. It is not the intention of this research to be immersed into the linguistic correction movement which moved side by side with the linguistic falseness, but it would find out a gaudy sample and an example to imitate of those who dealt with the linguistic correction issue and revealed the conformable method which Dr. Ahmed Mukhtar Omar has accepted which shows the broadness of knowledge and inturn forms an example for those who go into the confusion of the linguistic correction. In order to study Dr. Ahmad Mukhtar Omar's method in linguistic correction which we find that it has been the most ideal method in studying the language vocabulary of being either mistaken or correct. The study followed the descriptive, analytic method and so it introduced and an lightening summary of Dr. Ahmad Mukhtar Omar's autobiography and scientific knowledge followed by a preface of the correction movement of the Arabic language and then the study dealt with the linguistic correction issue of Dr. Ahmad Mukhtar Omar, the standards of wrongness or rightness, his procedures of linguistic correction and his theoretical and practical plan to improve what has gone wrong of the Arabic tongue.

The Phoenician Civilization Effects in the Greek Civilization

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Authors: Hessa AlHathal
Keywords: Phoenician Civilization, Greek Civilization.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 189 - 202

Abstract

This research handles the relationship between the Greek Civilization and the Phoenician one & the affect factors between the two civilization. The research focuses on the oriental civilization impact, represented by the Phoenician Civilization in the Greek on in several fields such as religion, literature, cities construction, the political & military systems, medicine and industry as well as on the commercial centers. It also sheds light on the causes and methods of such effect through the study of the material heritage and the contents of classical writings which were abundant in pointing to the relationship between the two parties.

spatial variation of population growth rates in Jordan for the period 1994 - 2004

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Authors: Mahmoud Abdullah Al-Habees , Jamal Alnsour , Ashraf Alnsour
Keywords: Spatial Analysis , population growth ratios, Jordan
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 203 - 210

Abstract

The study of spatial variation of population growth rates represents an indication for developmental accomplishments related to development planning. This study aims to clarify the population growth rates based on Census of 1994 and 2004 which undertaken by the Department of Statistics; as well as, determination of the most important differences of each governorate according to population growth rate at nation level using root logarithmic. Findings reveal that the governorates of Mafraq, Aqaba, Amman, Jarash, Ajloun, Balqa, Ma’an, Irbid, Madaba, Zarqa and Tafila are arranged as 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 respectively, in spite of the large population size of Amman, Zarqa and Irbid, and irregularity of geographic interconnection of these governorates at regional level.

The Natural Experience of the Visual and Auditory Performances, in Addition to their Relationship and Implementation with the Musical Rhythm

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Authors: Mohammed AlMallah , Mohammed Alrefai , Taysir Tubaishat , Aziz Ahmad Madi , Tsonka ABakri
Keywords: Rhythm Movements, Musical Rhythm
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 211 - 224

Abstract

This research aims to identify the relationship between rhythm movements drawn on canvas, otherwise known as the image of the outer surface of the form, and musical rhythm movement which the musician seeks. The researcher aims to confirm that relationship by analysing both visual and auditory sensations. The researchers aims to probe how both visual and auditory sensations are employed in drama. The obvious effect of this relationship can be observed in practice. This phenomenon can be observed by examining levels of satisfaction when there is a pictorial tool affecting the visual system and sound input affecting the auditory system. These relationships are surveyed by means of an intuitive experiment which probes the performance aspect of drama and its impact on the formation of rhythms in fine arts.

Role of New Media in the Reproduce Socialization of Adolescents at High School

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Authors: Lara A AlHadedd
Keywords: new media, socialization re-production, Adolescents, high school students.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 225 - 239

Abstract

This study was conducted in order to detect the role of new media in re-producing socialization of Adolescents at high school, in public schools in Irbid Governorate during 2014. The study developed a questionnaire to achieve this goal, it was conducted on (201) adolescent from high school students, who are using the new media, the sample was randomly selected. The study used descriptive statistical analysis methods, and regression analysis and "T” test analysis, to achieve the objectives of the study. Results showed number of findings, first that the new media has a significant role in the re-socialization of Adolescents in general. Besides new media has a big role that influencing adolescents individual positive values, it also increase chances to accurate their personal preferences, which affect their time management as well. The study also found that there were no statistical relevant differences at the level of significance (α = 0.05) between the role of the new media, and reproducing socialization attributable to the study variables (age, sex, type of residence). Study recommended conducting more studies on the new media role in the socialization re-production for adolescent young people, and the need to be aware of the influence of new media towards assuring negative attitudes that may affect re-socialization within families and in societies over all.

Administration of Jerusalem in (1740-1821) , 2015

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Authors: Fatima AlTarawneh
Keywords: Administration, Ottoman Empire,،Christians, Jerusalem.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 240 - 246

Abstract

This paper aims to shed some light on the situations of Jerusalem city throughout the Ottoman era, and the reflection of the Ottoman administration on the holy city of Jerusalem both internally and externally between 1740 and 1821. The most important aspect that this paper has dealt with is the way that Turkish officials were running the city and the ways that they were dealing with its heterogeneous citizens. This study has clarified the mishandling of such officials to the Christians both who were residing in the city or visiting it as pilgrims. That policy, however, has brought about European's interference under the pretext of saving the Christians from such policy, and that what really led to what has been known as European Capitulations in Ottoman Empire at that time weather in Jerusalem or elsewhere.

The Economic- Social Human Development Index: A New Measurement of Human Development

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Authors: Thaer Ayasreh
Keywords: Human development, Human development index, Economic-Social Human Development Index, Ranking of countries.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 247 - 261

Abstract

The main contribution in this paper lies in using the ESHDI with a combination of economic and social indicators which measures achievements of human development. The result is the creation of the Economic-Social Human Development Index (ESHDI) as composite index. The proposed index introduces the ESHDI as an alternative or may be a companion to the HDI. It is a good representative measure of human development takes into account when measuring the level of human development of a country, Firstly: the level of economic human development (expressed as the Economic Human Development Index(EHDI)), which is measuring achievements in two basic dimensions: income dimension and economic policy dimension and Secondly: the level of social human development (expressed as the Social Human Development Index(SHDI)), which is measuring achievements in three basic dimensions: a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of social living. The sub-indices are then combined into a composite index that measures the average achievements of human development in a country. The ESHDI is based on four indicators representing the economic human development index and twelve indicators representing the social human development index, whereas the HDI simply assesses the development based upon three equally weighted indicators. Furthermore, Values under the standard normal cumulative distribution curve corresponding to the value of (z) standard have used for scaling indicators on scale between 0 to 1 in this method , leading to the reduction of issues faced by HDI measurements. The results of the ESHDI are manageable and easily understood, and the value of index between 0 to 1, where the greater is the better. The ESHDI was calculated for 164 countries, member in UN and the measurement has detected more differentiation between developed and underdeveloped countries. In the light of, the results presented here imply that the ESHDI can be a good representative and a measure for human development.

Ukuhlonipha and ukuhloniphana among the Zulu Traditional Healers

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Authors: Jabulani Owen Nene
Keywords: ukuhlonipha, ukuhloniphana, politeness, respect and traditional healers
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 262 - 270

Abstract

African traditional healers have one generic doctrine among themselves which is correctly called ukuhlonipha amasiko in Zulu, which can be loosely translated as meaning to promote and respect cultures. The term ukuhlonipha alone is a Zulu verb which means ‘to respect’, and if it is practised effectively across all cultures it yields peace within family structures and within the society at large. Traditional healers practise and promote ukuhlonipha when they meet, during consultations and during traditional ceremonies, though much of it still remains a mystery to the uninitiated, and sometimes even to scholars of this philosophy. This article aims to explore the features of ukuhlonipha among traditional healers so that future generations can understand the somewhat interesting, strange and peculiar behaviour of traditional healers. The research therefore, utilises relevant theory, especially the theory of politeness, to critically analyse the hlonipha features of ukuhlonipha custom in order to gain a clear understanding of their meaning.

In the footsteps of Virgil's The Aeneid: John Gay's Polly, a Female Aeneas"

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Authors: Samia Saleh AL-Shayban
Keywords: Gay, Virgil, Polly, Aeneas, West Indies, Rome
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 271 - 282

Abstract

Generally, critics have read John Gay’s Polly (1729) as a satire of the political and social corruption that marked his own era. Other studies have attempted to explain the play as an anti-slavery and anti-imperial voice. My proposal looks beyond the immediate contemporary context of the play and attempts to read it as a propaganda for the futuristic imperial aspirations of Britain. This is revealed through constructing a structural comparison between Polly and Virgil’s The Aeneid. Like the ancient Roman poet, Gay emerges obsessed with the time not as a simple historical fact, but as a vehicle for imperial ideology and legacy. Thus, the structure of The Aeneid has found its way into Polly, asserting the indispensable literary and ideological legacy of the Imperium Romanum. Gay promotes Britain’s imperial agenda through emulating the structure of Virgil’s Aeneid. Like that of the imperial epic, Polly’s structure is based on the dynamic of struggle where the heroine occupies a central position similar to that of Aeneas. Like the Aeneid, Polly’s, structure is of three stages; exodus, sea voyage and the Promised Land. Both characters follow the same structure in search of new life in a new land. Aeneas who reaches Italy from the destroyed Troy founded the Roman Empire through marrying the Princess of Latium. Polly ends her struggle by marrying Prince Cawwawkee, the heir to of the Indian throne. The bond between them legalizes the British dominance in the West Indies and by extension the creation of the British Empire. By following Virgil’s steps and his Roman empire, Gay finds his way well charted.