Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences

From 2000 to 2018

ISSN 1026-3721

Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed journal published by The University of Jordan. The main objective of the journal is to provide an intellectual platform for all scholars from Jordanian and international universities. Dirast: Human and Social Sciences journal articles are indexed in SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The journal is developing to become one of the leading journals for humanities and social sciences in the region.

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Volume 43, Issue 2

Patterns of Psycho overexitabilities and its Relation to Distinguished Cognitive and Social Emotionality Trait of Tabuk University Students

en
Authors: Saud M Alshammary , Mohammad M Baniyounes , Ahmad A Alzaareer
Keywords: Patterns of Psycho Overexcitabilities, Cognitive and Social Emotionality Trait, Tabuk University Students, Demographic Variables.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 1 - 14

Abstract

This study aimed to detect all levels of Psycho overexitabilities Patterns, and cognitive and social emotionality trait on one hand, and finding the relations and differences between them according to some demographic variables among available sample of (140) of enrolled bachelor students at Tabuk University for the academic year 1434/1435AH – 2013/2014 AD at the scientific, social and humanities colleges on the other hand. To detect study variables; two instruments have been applied; the first instrument measures five patterns of Psycho overexitabilities, and the second instrument measures emotional cognitive and social trait. After data collecting and analysis, statistical results indicated significant differences at the significance level of (α ≤ 0.05) of the Patterns of Psychoo verexitabilities levels according to demographic variables, also indicated significant positive statistical correlation at the significance level of (α ≤ 0.05)between the five Patterns of Psycho overexitabilities on one hand, and the emotional cognitive and social trait on the other hand for the study sample.Based on study results, researchers recommended the need for early detection of all types of Psycho overexitabilities patterns, the emotional cognitive and social trait, and preparation of the appropriate educational and extension programs, which will contribute to developing its positive aspects, and reduce the negative ones.

Political Reforms and Political Arab Systems of Political Science Lecturer's Perceptions at the Jordanian Universities "Survey Study"

ar
Authors: Abdel-Halim Manna Al Adwan , Mo’d Awad Al-Hazaimeh
Keywords: Political Reforms, Political Arab Systems, Political Science Lectures, Jordanian Universities.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 15 - 42

Abstract

The study aimed at identifying the political reforms that are required by the Arab political systems from the perceptions of the political science lecturers at the Jordanian universities. The study based on a key hypothesis that there is statistical significance at the level of (@ ≤ 0.05) between the personal variables and the political reforms required by the Arab political systems. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used the quantitative approach (survey method) through a questionnaire consisted of two parts, the first is devoted to demographic characteristics of the study sample, while the second part is dedicated to the political reforms required by the Arab regimes through the perceptions of the political science teachers at the Jordanian universities. Fifty one questionnaires have been distributed to the teachers of political science; the researcher received back 45 questionnaires, forty two were analyzed as three questionnaires were not valid to be analyzed. This study came to confirm the validity of the hypothesis, as the study concluded several outcomes, primarily: The main reforms that are needed by the political systems are constitutional reforms. The introversion of regimes plays major role in the widespread of the corruption phenomenon, as well as, the study clarified the absence of the Arab awareness and the lack of understanding to the impact of media on the society. The study came out with some recommendations, most importantly; the necessity of keeping away from the patching reforms and approaching the real reforms, where the efficiency should be the only criterion to consolidate the leadership positions within the system and keeping away from the reduction of the governance and finally, the vital necessity to adopt the basis of the open political system that helps the participation of every individual in the society especially those with political competencies.

Blockage of Almubtada's Advancement to Alkhabar: a Semantic Perspective

ar
Authors: Abd Rahman M Al-Quda
Keywords: Al-Mubtada, The Predicate, Semantic Interpretation
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 43 - 51

Abstract

This research paper addresses the cases where Al-Mubtada (subject) has to be preceded by the predicate. It handles syntacticians’ views on, focusing on the semantic account for each case. It suggests whether these semantic accounts are adequate; if not it provides further semantic accounts which may be more pursuing. It is worth indicating that Al-Mubtada must not initiate the sentence if the predicate is a compulsorily-beginning word or is restricted to the Al-Mubtada or Al-Mubtada is a cataphoric pronoun referring back to the predicate or is indefinite provident that the predicate is a phrase, just to name a few. This paper provides a semantic interpretation for all of these cases and others.

The Language of Individualism and Place; a case study of Alshanfra’s poem” the Lamyya”

en
Authors: Mahmoud Saleem Hayajneh , Ahmad Hasan Al-hasan
Keywords: The Language of Individualism and Place; Alshanfra; alienation
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 52 - 62

Abstract

This paper attempts to trace the linguistic emerge of the “I” phenomena and its struggle with the tribal environment to show the poet’s suffer of individualism and alienation in his society. This state was motivated by a case of Destruction and disruption which show his inability to occupy a good position among his people to make him feel that he belongs to them. This sense resulted in a feeling of insulation from his society developed in a dramatic style that establishes a case of struggle centered on neediness and hunger, so, the poet, tried to create a substitute represented in a tribe of lions and other wild animals to prove himself.

(La-Jarum) between Theory and Usage

fr
Authors: Nasser Ibrahim Alnoeimi
Keywords: (La-Jarum), Theory, Structure
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 63 - 75

Abstract

This study deals with an important linguistic structure called (La-Jarum). The study concentrated on the grammatical, phonetically, morphological and semantically aspects of this structure (La-Jarum). Also, we studied the origin and uses of (La-Jarum) in Arabic language. We analyzed this structure (La-Jarum) by using the grammar books and explanation books of quran. The study showed that La-Jarum is a compound structure that is always used as one unit and its origin is from quran. It also showed that the meaning of (La-Jarum) improved by time semantically. Now, its meaning became for astonishment and exclamation.

Literary Rhetoric Humour: Concepts and Mechanisms

ar
Authors: Hussein M Za’tout
Keywords: Rhetoric Humour, Mechanisms
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 76 - 88

Abstract

Rhetoric humour is a scientific rhetoric issue which falls within the scope of study of rhetoric. It is far beyond the limits known to the researcher and it is not bound by scientific rules that can place it within reach of the common user. Considering its high rhetoric scientific value, the researcher in his modest attempt, tried to disclose some of the mysteries surrounding this superior type of issues related to the scientific rhetoric humour among the early writers. This paper is a modest attempt at presenting a model for classification of these aspects of rhetoric humour, setting rules for them rendering them easy to learn and practice so that the learner might fully appreciate the full flavor of the beautiful Arabic literary texts, thanks to the identification of its concepts and the definition of its mechanisms.

Factors Affecting the Natural Conditional Breastfeeding in Jordanian Society: “An Analytical Study”

ar
Authors: Muneer Karadsheh
Keywords: Natural Conditional Breastfeeding, Women’s Age At Marriage, Women’s Current Age, Previous Use of Family Planning.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 89 - 106

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate and analyze the effect of a range of social, economic and demographic factors on the length of the natural conditional breastfeeding period among married women in Jordanian society. For this purpose, the study depended on the 2012 population and family survey and used a number of statistical models to analyze the data, including comparative means and the advanced stepwise regression. The results showed the importance of such variables as the number of children in the family, the status of women’s work , their level of education, age upon marriage, current age and place of residence, and prior experience with family planning, the desire to have another child, the incidence of child mortality in determining the parameters of the conditional breastfeeding period.

The Principle of the Separation of Powers in the Constitutions of Jordan and their amendments (1928-2011)

ar
Authors: Iman Fraihat
Keywords: Separation of Powers, Legislative Authority, Executive Authority, Judicial Authority, Constitution, Amendment.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 107 - 137

Abstract

This study investigates the principle of the separation of powers in the consecutive Constitutions of Jordan and their amendments (1928-2011), given that the Constitution is the sole authority that achieves this separation. Separation prevents any interference between these powers and is quite achievable as the state is multifunctional. These functions were in one hand which used to execute all the state functions. To safeguard its viability and continuity, the state need to execute all its duties in the best way possible so as to guarantee the protection of the rights and freedoms without tyranny. The state can do this through legislation, i.e. issuing absolute common laws, executing them to achieve regulation, protection and security, and penalizing anyone who violates them to achieve justice and solve disputes. Holding all these powers and achieving these ends have become difficult as the societies have evolved from absolute monarchies to parliamentary and presidential governments; this necessitated the presence of three institutions to do these functions: the legislative authority, the executive authority, and the judicial authority. The present study follows up the aspects of the separation of powers in the three constitutions of Jordan and their respective amendments as represented in the basic statute of 1828 and the Constitution of Jordan no. (3) Of 1947 and the Constitution of Jordan of 1952. The study reached a number of results and recommendations. Among these conclusions is that the constitutions of Jordan of 1952 and 1952 have taken into consideration the principle of the separation of powers. However, it was not an absolute separation. Rather, it was relatively flexible: it kept a measure of balance and cooperation between them. The study recommends that the legislative authority be re-respected to rectify things.

Space Solution for the Problem of Violence in Jordanian Universities

ar
Authors: Othman Ghnaim , Khalil Al-Sa’aydih
Keywords: Violence, Jordanian Universities
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 138 - 147

Abstract

This study aimed to Classify the causes of violence in the Jordanian universities and arrange these causes according to their importance and the degree of their impact on the problem in order to enable the decision-maker to determine the starting point in addressing this problem. The study used a descriptive research method, Data were collected from various sources, such as scientific books, journals, internet and the official statistical reports,in addition to using brainstorming to generate new ideas about the causes of the problem, The study used one of qualitative analysis methods, which is called Structural Analysis method – Cross Impact Matrix to sort and classify the causes of the problem according to their importance and the degree of their impact on the problem. The Study concluded that, the academic factors, and psychological factors, and so the administrative factors are the most important and influential reasons in the problem. As well as the Study concluded that all of these factors and reasons are within the external environment of universities and launched from it. The study recommended using and applying the methods of qualitative analysis in general, and especially Structural Analysis / Matrix Effects In the process of study and analysis and classifying the causes of social and human problems, and build a cross-cutting priorities according to degrees of influence of the axes in the study of complex problems, especially social problems. The study also recommended to develop the outputs of the General Secondary certificate and re-consider them, and to work on the unification policies and foundations of university admission in a more rationality and objectivity.

Specialized Electronic Press and its Role in Manufacturing the Knowledge of Jordanians University Youth Analytical Field Study

ar
Authors: MHatem S Alawneh , Tariq Al-Nasir
Keywords: : Specialized Electronic Journalism, Manufacturing The Knowledge, Youth, University Youth, Specialized Press.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 148 - 173

Abstract

This study aim to identify the editorial and directorial characteristics of the specialized electronic journalism, of the journalistic topics and styles, sources and geographical themes, Tarbeahnews website has been chosen as a model. In addition to the electronic properties used by the website. The study has also focused on finding out the role played by the electronic journalism in shaping knowledge among Jordanians University Youth. This study is classified within the descriptive research, in using the survey method, and relying on the content and questionnaire analysis tools, as the researcher analyzed the content of Tarbeahnews website, which is a website specialized in academic subjects, as well as distributing questionnaires to a sample of 486 students in Al-Yarmouk University. The study found that the majority of respondents (youth segment) with (92.2%) watched specialized online newspapers, which means it is known to the reading public and the youth in particular, and has the ability to attract this segment of the public, (15.9%) of whom they are exposed to it displays information and up to date news in its domain, and (13.9%) because it provides news and information described as rare and accurate, and (12.9%) because they provide full details on specific topics, and electronic press specialized in the fields of religion and other specialized areas that young people want it to have such subjects (Mean4.62), while the fields of politics came in twelfth place with an avarage of (40.9). The results have shown that Tarbeahnews specialized news website was ranked the first with an average of (32.8%) among specialized websites which were browsed by the respondents, Irbid news website which is specialized in Irbid Governorate ranked the second with (22.7%), also Tarbeah specialized news website has contributed in the formation of knowledge among university students through its role in raising the level of knowledge in educational issues, which indicates that the website publishes a numerous amount of specialized information especially issues that affect education sector. The results have revealed that Tarbeahnews website has focused on local topics up to (70%), while the website has presented a high percentage of Arabic subjects, the website also did not rely on specific information sources but used a various resources meeting with the readers needs. On the other hand the website did not use the electronic journalism properties in a professional way, such as hypertext and multimedia. The results have shown that Tarbeahnews website has managed to present a group of news and press releases that are classified in the list of the main topics due to its importance to the readers, while it could not update the topics that published on its homepage.

Al-Jahith Role in the Arab Voice Lesson

ar
Authors: Ayshah M Othman , Yasmeen Saad AlMousa
Keywords: : Pronunciation Flaws, Studies Compositional Voice, Words Repulsion, Letters Repulsion.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 174 - 182

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to read part of Al-Jahith inheritance polymath, and monitor some of his views and discuss them. Being a scientist linguistically astute, his excellence in several aspects of the Arabic language. The purpose of this research is to addressed the gathering of audio issues presentation by Al-Jahith in his writings, discussing it like talking about the disadvantages of speech, whether in defects resulting from the pronunciation of the Persians to the voices of the Arab and defined sounds and referring to characters most rotation in speech and explaining the importance of teeth in pronunciation and harder characters spoken, and the relationship of dental alveolar pronunciation and also pointed to the importance of letters and explaining some of pronounciation of characters, also pointed to the repulsion words and repulsion characters.

Place Space in Al-Hariri’s Maqamat (Assemblies)

en
Authors: Mohammad Awawdah
Keywords: Place Space, Maqamat, Al-Hariri’s.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 183 - 197

Abstract

This study aims to discuss the importance of place in Al_ Hariri's Maqamat and to clarify its artistic function with its literacy and characters in Maqamat. The place of Maqamat should be correlated to the events, time and characters to build the anecdotal pyramid. This imporves the sequenee and reaction of events, the appearance of characters as well as developing the polet. Furthermore allowing the writer, narrator and audience to be involved in the textual structure of Maqamat. Consequntly, the setting in which Maqamat take place should reflect the status and lives within the scene it wishes to mirror, while keeping the past and present homeland memories alive.

Semantic value in the play three penny Opera Bertolt Brecht "Analytical study"

en
Authors: ali abdullah fajer
Keywords: Key words: epic theater, semantic value, opera, alienation.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 198 - 207

Abstract

Abstract The opera of the Arts, which took a large area of Interests (Bertolt Brecht) and contributed to crystallize his thoughts and deepened during his attempts to experimental theater, which achieved from which great successes was able to highlight the importance of the opera as a form of musical theater influential, and announced through which all theatrical style and theories that have become established for the school to play against the Stanislavski School. The semantic value an important element of theater Barsta, where taken (Brecht) sets of values, a way to reach the objectives of the intellectual in the theater, supporting those values and the implications of all the elements of theater, including music as a mediator aesthetically; can contribute actively to raise awareness of the viewer through get him to listen to the voice of reason, which has had a profound impact on the march of modern theater (1). From this standpoint, the study seeks to identify the groups at the value (Brecht) and its implications, through analytical study of the text of the play (three sharks Opera) as one of its important play. The researcher adopted in his analysis of the play set of actions: identify the research community, and the curriculum, tools, and the unit of analysis, and the unity of the census, supported by his analysis in terms of the text of the play as a unit of iterations, and taxonomic scales of values that suggest connotations verbal taken from the play. And concludes the study to show and discuss the results based on the references and sources that promote the views of the researcher and the analytical results obtained through the frequencies, percentages, and came out the conclusions and recommendations reached through research.

Urban Fabric of the Arab-Islamic City through the Journey of Ibn Jubeir (578 A.H/1182 -581 A.H/1185)

ar
Authors: Khlaif M Gharaibeh
Keywords: Urban Fabric, Ibn Jubeir, The Arab-Islamic City, Urban Components.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 208 - 224

Abstract

Ibn Jubeir, the Arab Muslim traveler, set out on his pilgrimage to Mecca from Granada in Andalusia which lasted two years and three months, passing numerous Arab Islamic cities , recorded observations about them in his book:" Resalat E'tibar Alnasek fe thekr alathar alkareemah walmanasek". The Researcher identified the number of cities as 37, 12 of which were in Egypt, two cities in the Arabian Peninsula, 5cities in Iraq, 8cities in the land of Euphrates Island, and 10 cities in the Levant. This study aimed to identify urban fabric components of these cities, as described by Ibn Jubeir, which were distributed among the four types: Residential buildings, religious buildings, defensive buildings, and service buildings(khans, parks, Albemaristans, Hammamat …etc.) The researcher used the historical analytical approach to trace Ibn Jubeir’s Journey between these cities. The study came up with several findings referred to comprehensive Arab-Islamic in urban planning.

The Unification of the Morphological Meanings of the Verbal form (ESTAF’LA)

ar
Authors: Kalaf Jaradat
Keywords: : Significance' Variety 'Request’ Unification
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 225 - 241

Abstract

This research aims at investigating the morphological meanings of the verbal form of (ESTAF’LA) and its variations. Despite the variety of meanings of the verbal form, the research depends on the assumption that the form has one, basic morphological meaning which is ‘request’. ‘Request’ has two meanings: ‘Direct Request’ to establish ‘Inquiry,’ ‘Ask for permission ’and ‘Begging’. The second meaning for ‘Request’ is ‘Appeal’ and ‘Tendency Towards’. Old and contemporary researchers did not pay attention to the second meaning of ‘Request’ although it dominates the form. my research, presents all the meanings by both old and contemporary researches showing the different variations of the meanings of ‘Request’.

Quraish Clan Songs of Wells in the Pre-Islamic Period

ar
Authors: Laila T Al-Omari
Keywords: Song, Lyric, Wells, Digging, A Drinking Water Source.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 242 - 268

Abstract

This paper is based on garnering the songs of wells in the Pre-Islamic Period. The significance of these songs lies in getting today’s reader acquainted with his/ her Arab heritage of which they constitute a vital past related to the various aspects of life in the Pre-Islamic Period. The researcher’s doing this job provides us with the indication that such lyrics, though few in number, were popular amongst Arabs who dug their wells to supply people and pilgrims with drinking water, bearing in mind that water, in Mecca was insufficient, that people used to drink from ponds at the mountain peaks outside of Mecca. That each tribe tried hard to attract other tribes by using its wells to supply people and pilgrims with drinking water, which gave it the upperhand over the other tribes in terms of religion, politics, and economy, and that Mecca at that time was a religious theater targeted by pilgrims coming from different parts of the world to perform their religious rites. To achieve the afore-mentioned objectives, Arabs followed different ways to highlight the advantages of their wells in their lyrics. Many a time did they describe their wells as being full and overflowing, and the water in them as being rich, tasty, pure, clear, and good for diseases. In view of the deep connection between these lyrics and providing drinking water for pilgrims, the researcher has mad much use of religious books, such as those dealing with the prophet’s (Allah May Bless Him) life, uncommon Hadith and news of Mecca. She has also resorted to dictionaries of towns and language that referred to a group of these lyrics.

The Political Culture and Political Participation in Jordan 1989-2013

ar
Authors: Saad H Alshehab
Keywords: Political Culture, Political Participation, Transparency, The Election Process.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 269 - 279

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the role of the political culture in the election process in Jordan, since the study has addressed the political culture’s concept and its dimensions and elements, to know the effect of the political culture on the election process, and determining the extent of the fairness and transparency. The study has introduced its problem that represents in getting acquaint with the awareness degree achieved by the political culture for the Jordanian society’s individuals, and the extent of its effect on the election process, this is through the following main question: what is the role of the political culture and its effect on the elections process. The study has been illustrated through introduction, three topics and conclusion. To achieve the objective of this study, it has adopted the political systems method and the political participation concept.

The Narration (RIWAYAH) of Kharijah Ibn Musab in the Quranic Recitation Linguistic & Compilation Study by:

en
Authors: Abdullah Nasir Al-Qarni
Keywords: خارجة بن مصعب، رواية، القراءة، توجيه، العربية
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 280 - 293

Abstract

With the guidance of modern linguistic knowledge, this study seeks to address (The Naration of Kharijah Ibn Mus'ab in Qur'anic Reading) in relation to its status in the Arabic language ( accepting or rejection or regularity or oddness). The study concludes that the sub-divisions of the reading itself were neither on principles or foundations , whether from jurisprudential or linguistic point of view , but they were only in partial and secondary matters. This makes diversification and disagreement permissible in it. Furthermore, although it is odd in relation to the narration reference, but it is considered significant and remained correctly practiced, especially if we consider the status of the prominent narrators to whom it is dully ascribed; namely ( Nafe, Abuamr and Al-Hassan), in addition to the fact that the Qura'anic Othmani calligraphy accommodates it. Moreover, the study displays that the relation of grammarians with odd Quranic readings is at the present time more just for odd ones than in the past. This is augmented by the broadness of the view towards odd readings, which have become a research for progress and coinage and are considered indispensable for any human language, while in the past they were specifically designated to the argument research that seeks to secure due purity of the classical Arabic language and correctness in the performance of worship acts. As regards parts of the study, they comprise introduction on the life of the narrator (Kharijah), relation of grammarians with Qur'anic readings , addressing the reading in three sub –sections covering phonetic ,phonological and syntactical aspects as well as conclusion and biographies.

The Effects of Land Cover Changes on Land Surface Temperature in Amman; an Urban Climate Change Study

en
Authors: Mohammad Bani Doomi , Omar Aldayaflah , Khaled Hazaymeh
Keywords: The Change, Land Cover, Temperature.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 294 - 304

Abstract

In this study, remote sensing techniques were used to examine the relationship between land cover change and land surface temperature in Amman city (the area of study). Landsat TM5 datasets for the years 1987 and 2003 , landsat 8 for the year 2014 were used in the analysis using PCI Geomatica 9.1 to perform supervised classification, MS Excel to calculate the changes in areas, ENVI 4.5 to perform land surface temperature estimation and ArcGIS 9.3 for overlap analysis of the results. Four classes were classified within the study area: Built-up area, Vacant Land, Vegetation and Quarries & Restructured Areas. An accuracy assessment was conducted for each data set and the statistics show that the overall accuracies are 92% and 86% and 88%, and the overall Kappa statistics were 0.872 % and 0.783% and 0.823 for the images of 1987 and 2003 and 2014, respectively. The overall land surface temperature ranged from 19°C to 29°C with a mean of 23.9°C and with a standard deviation of 3.0°C for the 1987 image and it ranged from 20°C to 32°C with a mean of 26.2°C and with a standard deviation of 4.1°C for the 2003 image. where it ranged from 20°C to 33°C with a mean of 26.5°C and with a standard deviation of 4.4°C for the 2014 image. The overall mean temperature was also increased by 3.2°C. LST values were increased for each land cover type in the 2014 image compared to the 1987 image, except for the Vegetation. The mean of temperature values for the built up area was increased by 4°C, and by 1.7 °C for Vacant Land and by 0.1°C for Quarries & Restructured Areas. . The mean for temperature values for the Vegetation areas were decreased by -1.7°C. These results showed strong evidence and relationship between the changes of land cover types on the local temperature of the city.

Étude Analytique de la Signification Lexicale du mot « Apprendre » à Partir des Discours Lexicographiques et des Questionnaires chez des Locuteurs Français et Arabes

fr
Authors: Alia Mefleh Mahasneh
Keywords: Dictionnaires, Questionnaire, Apprendre, la Signification, Stéréotypes, Possibles Argumentatifs, Aspect Normatif Et Transgressif.
Publication year: 2016
Pages: 305 - 318

Abstract

Cette recherche traite la construction de la signification lexicale du verbe (apprendre), de ses stéréotypes et de ses Possibles argumentatifs, par le recours aux discours lexicographiques français et arabes ainsi que l'analyse comparative menée sur le corpus recueilli auprès des locuteurs arabes et français, ce qui nous permet de mettre en perspective des formes et des sens différents du terme)apprendre). Puis, nous abordons les points communs et les différences de la signification lexicale de ce verbe, ainsi que les valeurs modales inscrites dans son signification. Cette démarche a pour objectif de souligner la pertinence d’une approche argumentativiste dans l’enseignement du lexique dans la classe du FLE. Cependant, une partie de notre recherche est consacrée à examiner le rôle que les théories sémantiques argumentatives jouent dans les discours lors de l’établissement de la signification lexicale. Tout en nous appuyant sur deux théories issues de l’argumentation dans la langue; la Théorie des Blocs Sémantiques et la Théorie des Possibles Argumentatifs. les résultats obtenus de cette étude ont montré que la construction lexicale du verbe (apprendre) est relativement similaire dans les deux langues. Ce qui est différent, c'est que dans le noyau français de (apprendre),il n'existe pas les notions: compréhension et prise de résolution. on observe aussi que les locuteurs enquêtées ont mobilisé des formes linguistiques variées à l'instar du verbe d'étude, ce qui donne de nouveaux sens associés au verbe (apprendre). Dans les dictionnaires, le noyau du mot reste relativement stable par rapport aux stereotypes. Dans l'ensemble, les individus possèdent une vue plus large que le dictionnaire sur les stéréotypes.