This study treated the position of the Mamluke state from the people of Keserwan and limiting it to the military campaigns that the Mamluke state waged against Keserwan Mountain at the ends of the seventh century H/the thirteenth century CE, which were known historically by The Keserwan campaigns, and that by standing on their causes by showing the passings of the people of Keserwan and their positions from the state after its exposure to the Crusade invasion. As the three military Keserwan campaigns that the Mamluke state waged against the people of Keserwan with its different sects formed one of the most prominent episodes of the struggle in that geographical spot. This study revealed the several results and effects that those campaings left behind especially the political and demographic and denominational effects on the people of Keserwan. As the state could impose its prestige by force. This study aimed to show the position of the Shiekh ibn Taymia from the behaviours of the people of Keserwan and from their religious belief, with concentrating on his role in the 3rd campaign politically and militarily, and analyzing his letter to the Mamluke Sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun and its meanings, and observing its effects and gravity. As the Shiekh Taqiy Aldin ibn Taymia represented in the period of the first Mamluke age one of the most prominent scientists of the Sunna as he had an obvious role side by side with the political authority against its opponents. This study showed the development of this struggle and its revelations intellectually and theoretically by presenting opposite models representing it as Ibn Taymia and Ibn Al-Mutahir Al-Hilly. As the legal opinion of Ibn Taymia and his thought had the most effect in lighting the political and the intellectual struggle with them in the subsequent periods. The importance of this study became clear because of pure objective causes presented in its treatment of several centers and details by some neutrality far from partiality because of the tendencies and points of view that accompanied these campaigns which appeared in the historical writing based on the identity or sectarianism by some writers, which made the history of the campaigns on Keserwan in Lebanon a sectarian history as the whole relation with Mamluke state because of ignoring much of their aspects. As it is impossible in any case to burden the responsibility of the struggle with one of the two parties
Loay Ibrahim Bawaneh1, Mohammad Mahmood Al-Anagera 2
Mamluke State, People of Keserwan, Scientists, Political Authority, Ibn Taymia.